What Is The Structure Of The Brain – The major parts of the brain are made up of different structures, each with a unique and important function.
The brain controls voluntary actions such as talking and running and involuntary actions such as breathing and reflexes. Our emotions, memory and personality and our senses – sight, touch, hearing, taste, smell – originate in our brain. The brain functions as a single organ but is divided into specialized areas of expertise and function.
- 1 What Is The Structure Of The Brain
- 2 Structure Of The Cerebrum, Anatomical Poster, The Location Of The Brain In The Head Stock Vector
- 3 Solved Identify The Different Structures Of The Brain By
- 4 Brain Structure And Function
- 5 The Brain: More Than One Way To Map A Mind
What Is The Structure Of The Brain
Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain make up the three main parts of the brain. Anterior structures include the cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, limbic system, and olfactory bulb. The midbrain contains the various cranial nerve nuclei, tectum, tegmentum, colliculi, and crura cerebrum. The hindbrain, also known as the brainstem, is made up of the medulla, pons, cranial nerves, and the posterior part of the brain called the cerebellum.
Structure Of The Cerebrum, Anatomical Poster, The Location Of The Brain In The Head Stock Vector
Amygdala-part of the limbic system; Located at the end of the hippocampus; Responsible for the response and memory of emotions, especially fear
Cerebellum – located in the lower part of the brain behind the pons; Responsible for balance and coordination of body muscles
Cerebral cortex – the outer and upper layer of the brain; divided into frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes; The cerebral cortex is responsible for thought processes such as speech and decision making; Each different lobe is responsible for different cognitive and processing functions
Corpus callosum – located above the thalamus, under the cortex; Connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain; Responsible for communication between the two hemispheres of the brain
The Human Brain Is The Main Organ Of The Human Central Nervous System. It Is Located
Hypothalamus-located above the pituitary gland and below the thalamus; Controls the pituitary gland (which controls all the endocrine glands in the body); Body temperature is responsible for motivational behaviors such as hunger and thirst
Left brain – the left half of the brain; Controls the right side of the body; Science and mathematics are generally responsible for tasks involving logic, such as language and reasoning, although this may differ depending on whether a person is right- or left-handed.
Medulla oblongata—Located in the lower part of the brain stem; Responsible for maintaining vital body functions and life-sustaining involuntary actions such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, swallowing, and transmission of messages from the brain to the spinal cord
Pineal gland – deep in the center of the brain, located midway between the two hemispheres; part of the endocrine system; produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythms and regulate reproductive hormones; Also regulates other endocrine functions and converts nervous system signals into endocrine signals
Solved Identify The Different Structures Of The Brain By
Located above the pons-medulla oblongata; responsible for sending signals or messages between various areas of the brain, especially between the upper and lower parts of the brain; Plays a role in sleep and dreams
Neurosurgeons and scientists have been studying the relationship between a person’s ‘handedness’—whether someone is right or left-handed—and the dominance and specialization of the ‘right’ and ‘left’ brain since the mid-1800s.
A better understanding of the correlation between handedness and functional brain specialization can help shed light on a variety of topics, from dyslexia to neurobiology to brain research to the origins of human language. Left to right hemisphere. It also reveals more structures. In the mid-sagittal view, all four cortical lobes are visible. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus, the occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain, and the temporal lobe can be found behind the brain stem. The cerebellum, pons, medulla, and spinal cord appear caudal to the cerebrum, but in this view, the midbrain, made up of two regions, the tegmentum and tectum, is also superior to the pons. The corpus callosum is located in the center of the cerebrum and is a white matter bundle made up of axons that cross from one hemisphere to the other. Surrounding the corpus callosum is the cingulate gyrus, a region important for emotion.
Figure 18.1. Midsagittal section of the brain. All four cerebral lobes are visible, as is the cingulate gyrus, which extends through the medial aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes. The corpus callosum lies beneath the cingulate gyrus. Beneath the cerebrum are the midbrain, pons, medulla and cerebellum. ‘Internal Brain Regions’ by Casey Henley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 International License.
Structure Of Human Brain Section Schematic Vector Stock Vector By ©alexanderpokusay 92595144
The diencephalon region of the brain includes the area surrounding the thalamus and hypothalamus. It is inferior to the fornix and lateral ventricles, posterior to the anterior commissure and superior to the brainstem. The fornix is a bundle of nerve fibers that originates primarily from the hippocampus. The anterior commissure lies above the hypothalamus and, like the corpus callosum, is a white matter tract that allows information to cross from one hemisphere to the other. The thalamus is known for its role as a relay and processing site for sensory and motor systems. The hypothalamus has a variety of functions, including stress regulation and the “fight or flight” response of the autonomic nervous system, reproduction, sleep, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic functions. The mammillary bodies sit posterior to the hypothalamus and are important for memory. The optic nerves from the retina cross at the optic chiasm and then the optic tracts return to the diencephalon.
In the brainstem, the tectum of the midbrain contains the superior and inferior colliculi, which are important for vision and hearing, respectively. The reticular formation is located throughout the brain stem. Networks within the reticular formation are important for regulating sleep and consciousness, pain and motor control. The fourth ventricle lies between the brainstem and the cerebellum.
Figure 18.2. diencephalon and brainstem regions in the midsagittal section. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and mammillary bodies are part of the diencephalon. The optic tracts leave the diencephalon, cross at the optic chiasm, and continue as the optic nerves to the retina. The anterior commissure and fornix form the anterior and superior border of the diencephalon. The superior and inferior colliculi are part of the midbrain tectum and the reticular formation is located throughout the brainstem. ‘Midsagittal Dysfunction and Brainstem’ by Casey Henley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 International License.
Coronal sections of the brain make deep tissue structures visible. A cut through the anterior part of the temporal lobe shows the amygdala, a region important for emotion in the medial temporal lobe. Basal ganglia areas are also visible; The striatum, which includes the caudate and putamen and the globus pallidus. The basal ganglia has multiple functions but is best known for its role in movement control. The lateral ventricle is medial to the basal ganglia and above the lateral ventricle is the corpus callosum. The third ventricle is located in the middle of the brain, inferior to the lateral ventricles, and the optic chiasm is inferior to the third ventricle. The longitudinal fissure separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres, and the lateral sulcus is the border between the frontal and temporal lobes.
Brain Structure And Function
Figure 18.3. Coronal section in place of the amygdala. The amygdala is located in the temporal lobe, and the basal ganglia is a subcortical structure near the lateral ventricles. Corpus callosum, third ventricle, longitudinal fissure and lateral sulcus can also be seen. ‘Amygdala and Basal Ganglia’ by Casey Henley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 International License.
A coronal section close to the central sulcus visualizes the hippocampus. The hippocampus is known for its role in memory and spatial cognition. At this location, the basal ganglia are more defined; The caudate and putamen are still present, but two distinct regions of the globus pallidus, the internal and external divisions, as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra can be seen. The thalamus lies on either side of the third ventricle. The corpus callosum is superior to the lateral ventricle. The cerebrum is divided in half by the longitudinal fissure, and the lateral sulcus separates the temporal lobes from the frontal and parietal lobes.
Figure 18.4. Coronal section in situ of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe and the basal ganglia is a subcortical structure lateral to the thalamus and lateral ventricles. ‘Hippocampus and Basal Ganglia’ by Casey Henley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 International License.
Foundations of Neuroscience Copyright © 2021 by Casey Henley, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, unless otherwise noted. The brain is a complex organ that controls thinking, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, warmth, appetite and every other process in our body. Together, the brain and spinal cord extend from it to form the central nervous system or CNS.
The Brain: More Than One Way To Map A Mind
Weighing about 3 pounds in the average adult, the brain is about 60% fat. The remaining 40% is a combination of water, protein, carbohydrates and salts. The brain itself is not a muscle.
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