What Is The Source Of Hydrolyzed Collagen – Nutritional Status Among Portuguese and Turkish Adults Living in the Community: Correlations with Sociodemographic, Health and Anthropometric Characteristics.

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What Is The Source Of Hydrolyzed Collagen

What Is The Source Of Hydrolyzed Collagen

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Best Collagen Sources: List Of Foods With High Collagen

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Submission received: 13 February 2023 / Updated: 3 March 2023 / Accepted: 6 March 2023 / Published: 8 March 2023

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common joint disease, causing pain, disability, and socioeconomic costs worldwide. There are currently no approved disease-modifying drugs for OA, and safety concerns have been raised with the chronic use of symptomatic drugs. In this regard, supplements and nutrition have emerged as possible alternatives. Among them, collagen is the object of special interest, but under the same word different types of collagen coexist with different structures, groups and origins, leading to different properties and effects which may exist. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of collagen currently available on the market, focusing on those related to joint health, explaining their mode of action, preliminary evidence and evidence. of medicine. Native and hydrolyzed collagen are the most studied types of collagen for joint health. Native collagen has a unique immune response that requires recognition of its epitopes to prevent inflammation and catabolism of cells at the articular level. Hydrolyzed collagen may contain biologically active peptides that can reach joint tissue and have chondroprotective effects. Although there are preliminary and clinical studies showing the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements containing both types of collagen, available research suggests a clear relationship between the composition of the collagen collagen chemistry and mechanism of action.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is becoming one of the most common joint conditions due to the increase in life expectancy [1], which represents a major public health and economic issue today [2]. OA is characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of articular cartilage, which affects any joint although it is most common in the knees, hips, spine and interphalangeal joints causing pain, functional limitations, and reducing the quality of life [3, 4].

What Is The Source Of Hydrolyzed Collagen

There are various treatment options for OA including pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. The most commonly used pharmacological treatments have been analgesics (paracetamol) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) [5]. However, safety issues related to their long-term administration have limited its use, especially in patients with comorbidities [6, 7]. For this reason, efforts have been directed to find alternative treatments to improve clinical symptoms with a good level of safety and tolerance, known as Symptomatic Slow Action Drugs for OA (SYSADOAs) such as glucosamine (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) which are currently the most widely used SYSADOAs [8]. However, non-pharmacological treatments based on the consumption of collagen as a nutritional supplement have been placed as an emerging target of interest to support a preventive or therapeutic effect in OA patients [4].

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Collagen is the most abundant protein in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and connective tissues of vertebrates, most abundant in mammalian species [9]. The typical structure of collagen is a rod-like triple-helical domain. Based on their structure, supramolecular organization, and functional properties, 28 types of collagen have been described [10]. The production of collagen mainly depends on the extraction from many collagens made by animals such as cartilage, skin and bones. Depending on the production process, different products derived from collagen can be found in completely different forms, shapes and properties such as: natural collagen that is inactive (insoluble) or soluble natural collagen , both retain the triple helix structure; gelatin (denatured collagen), and hydrolyzed collagen (peptide/amino acid) which can also be produced with different degrees of hydrolysis [11].

The molecular structure of orally administered collagen determines its mode of action for joint heat. Initially, it was thought that collagen supplementation could promote the synthesis of connective tissue, especially cartilage ECM [12], especially since collagen represents its major component [13]. In fact, it has been shown that some peptides from hydrolyzed collagen are absorbed and accumulated in the cartilage [14]. In addition, animal models of OA have obtained promising results regarding the preservation of cartilage structure due to long-term ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen [15, 16]. Regarding natural collagen (both soluble and insoluble), the most studied is type II, which was initially analyzed in rheumatoid arthritis [17] and later in OA [18]. It has been reported that natural type II collagen induces an immune response called oral tolerance [19], a completely different mechanism compared to that described for hydrolyzed collagens. . According to this mechanism of action, type II collagen would reduce the autoimmune response against endogenous collagen at the level of articular cartilage.

Collagen has been studied extensively over the years. In the last decade alone, more than 20,000 papers have been published on the various aspects of collagen describing its triple helix molecular structure, its biological nature, its physicochemical properties and biological functions, methods of extraction, or its new use. However, as under the same word different types of collagens coexist, there is some confusion about the therapeutic power of each one, depending on the nature and its structure.

Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to describe the different types of collagen from a structural point of view, to evaluate the proposed mechanisms of action associated with each type for oral use, and gather its preliminary and clinical evidence for joint health.

Collagen Protein Vs Whey Protein: Which Protein Is Better?

Collagen is an old term coined to name a natural glue obtained by cooking animal bones. However it comes from the Greek κόλλα (kólla or “glue”) and -γενής (-genḗs or “to generate”). From a scientific point of view, collagen is now defined as a large family of structural proteins found in the ECM of animal cells characterized by having one or more regions with a specific helical structure three [20]. The triple helical conformation of collagen was first described in the 1950s based on the X-ray diffraction pattern of collagen fibers found in the skin [21]. This structure consists of three left-handed polypeptide chains (called collagen α-chains) joined in a right-handed helical structure. Collagen polypeptide chains are characterized by having a unique repeating unit (Gly-X-Y) in which Gly is glycine (the smallest amino acid in nature); and X and Y are usually proline (Pro) and hydroxyproline (Hyp). Due to this specific orientation, several molecular interactions occur within the collagen triple helix leading to a specific packing along the central axis [22].

Knowledge about collagen has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Although the scientific community in the 1970s referred to only four distinct collagen families [23], it is now generally accepted that the collagen superfamily consists of approximately 28 different members. in others in molecular structure as well as in their supramolecular ECM organization [24, 25, 26, 27]. The occurrence of another type of collagen, called collagen XXIX, has also been mentioned by other authors [28, 29], however, given that the gene COL29A1 has been shown to be identical to the gene of COL6A5 and that the a1(XXIX) chain corresponds to. the a5(VI) [30], collagen XXIX is not generally accepted as a genetically distinct family [24].

Based on their supramolecular organization, collagen types can be grouped into different families such as fibril-forming collagens, basement membranes or microfibrillar collagens, among others [10, 25] .

What Is The Source Of Hydrolyzed Collagen

Fibril-forming collagens are the most abundant in nature. They include type I, type II, type III, type V, and XI. All these types of collagen have the same ability to assemble into a quarter fibril-array. Within this group, type I and type II occur in large numbers. Type I collagens are heterotrimeric molecules, [α1 (I)]

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α2 (I)], consisting of two identical polypeptide chains [α1 (I)] and a different one, [α2 (I)]. They represent more than 90% of the living things in bone, dermis, tendons, ligaments,

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