What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System – LO1 for Unit 4 – Understand the consultation process for planning a gym exercise program and the boundaries of your professional roles

LO3 for Unit 4 – Find out a range of health and fitness assessments relevant to the client in the gym

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

LO1 for Unit 5 – How to plan and design safe and effective exercise programs for a range of clients

Introduction To The Skeletal System: Video & Anatomy

Special: Level 2 – Certificate in Fitness Education (February 2021) Unit 1 – Anatomy and Physiology (2021) LO3 for Unit 1 – The Skeletal System (2021)

Prefix “peri” means “to wander” Prefix “endo” means “found within” Suffix “blast” means “to build” Example: osteoblast (

The sesamoid bones are embedded within a tendon or muscle and function to reduce friction and change the direction of muscle pull – eg. Patella.

Long bones are longer than they are wide, and have a hollow center. These bones act as levers to create movement, produce blood cells, and store minerals, for example. Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, metatarsus, metatarsus.

Functions Of Our Skeletal System

Sorting bones are as wide as they are long. Their primary function is to provide support and stability with little movement. For example the wrist and wrist.

Flat bones consist of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone. As their name suggests, these bones are “flat” in appearance and have wide surfaces for muscle attachment. For example the skull, sternum and ribs

Irregular bones consisting of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone, and their shape depends on the functions they perform within the body. For example it provides significant mechanical support to the body, but protects multiple fixation points for skeletal muscle attachment. For example vertebrae, facial bones, pubis, ischium

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

Spongy or cancellous bone contains large spaces open to bone marrow. Red and white blood cells are produced here.

Functions Of The Skeletal System

The site where longitudinal bone growth occurs in children and adolescents. Once growth is complete, it is called the epiphyseal line.

A cell layer that lines the marrow cavity within the shaft of a long bone. The endometrium is actively involved in bone growth and repair.

Connective tissue with a fibrous outer layer and a cellular (osteogenic) inner layer surrounding the bone; Actively participates in bone growth and repair.

Compact bone has a tough, calcified matrix with very few spaces. Not only does this layer form a protective shell around spongy bone tissue, it also gives our bones their rigidity, strength and resistance.

Types Of Bones

The word vitreous means “like glass” and is bluish-gray in color. It is the tissue that covers the ends of bones and promotes smoother movement, with less friction between bones as they move. Hyaline cartilage is the most common cartilage in the body. It does not contain nerves or blood vessels

The epiphysis is the enlarged end of the long bone, which ossifies separately from the bone shaft but becomes fixed to the shaft when full growth is achieved. The epiphysis consists of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone.

The diaphysis is a long bone shaft. It is made up of cortical bone and usually contains bone marrow and adipose tissue.

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

The bone formation process called ossification begins when cartilage becomes ossified as it turns into bone as calcium is deposited. There are two stages of development:

Overview Of Skeleton

Calcium is especially important for bone health, as it works with collagen protein to give bones strength and flexibility.

During the first two months in the womb, the immature skeleton is formed and consists entirely of hyaline cartilage.

Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage (perichondria), and the cartilage cells turn into osteoclasts, creating a thin layer of bone along the outer column.

Blood vessels dilate and invaginate, providing nutrients to the central area of ​​the developing bone. Bone formations spread along the shaft towards the end of the bone in a state of ‘primary ossification’.

Why Is The Skeletal System Referred To As An

Bone remodeling and growth continues; The bone becomes longer, creating a central marrow cavity. The bone becomes thicker, and the epiphyseal cartilage is replaced by bone called secondary ossification.

Cartilage remains only at the ends of bones and in the growth plates. The shaft continues to develop as the bone becomes longer and thicker.

Bone remodeling occurs continuously throughout our lives. It is a dynamic process that involves the balance between bone resorption (where bone tissue is removed from the skeleton) by cells called osteocytes and bone deposition (formation of bone tissue) by cells called osteocytes.

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

Around the age of 10-15 years, girls and boys go through puberty, during which rapidly rising sex hormones affect bone growth. In girls, estrogen significantly accelerates the growth of bone mass, leading to a change in height. In boys, testosterone causes greater bone mass growth. By the age of 20, bone mass reaches 90% in both girls and boys.

Divisions Of The Skeletal System

Bone mass increases by another 10% during the third decade of life. From the age of 30, bone mass begins to gradually decline in both men and women due to lower levels of sex hormones.

Men can achieve higher bone mass than women due to several factors such as a larger skeleton, greater overall muscle mass, and a tenfold higher testosterone level.

Hormone levels continue to decline as men and women age, leading to a further decline in bone mass. However, women experience accelerated bone loss around age 50 due to female menopause

Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous renewal during each individual’s life through bone remodeling. This physiological process is necessary for the following reasons:

Fucntions Of Skeletal System

2. Resorption stage. Osteocytes attach to the surface of the bone and begin to dissolve the bone. They drill a cavity, called a resorption hole, in the cancellous bone or tunnel into the compact bone. Resorption requires two steps:

3. Reverse phase. Macrophage-like cells remove debris generated during matrix degradation. Mesenchymal stem cells, precursors of bone cells, appear along the burrow or fossa, where they increase in number and transform into pre-osteocytes.

4. Formation stage. Bone cells accumulate on the surface of the burrow or hole. Bone cells release a compound called osteopontin at the site, forming a new, smooth, non-mineralized (non-calcified) matrix. The new matrix is ​​mineralized with calcium and phosphorus, and the new bone is completed.

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

99% of the calcium (an average of 1.2 kg) present in the body is deposited in the bones; The other 1% is a necessary component of other body tissues such as muscles. In fact, our bones act as calcium reservoirs and can absorb or release calcium.

The Functions Of The Skeletal System

Calcium regulation must be strictly controlled to maintain vital life-supporting physiological functions such as heartbeat, nervous system function, and muscle contractions. 1% is more important than 99%.

Calcium regulation is maintained by a pair of hormones with opposing effects, which together regulate calcium storage, absorption and excretion in the body.

Many hormones regulate bone density and are essential for bone health. The following hormones are involved in regulating bone growth and maintenance:

Regular weight-bearing physical activity combined with resistance exercises and short bouts of high-impact activity during childhood increases bone mass.

What Are The Functions Of The Skeletal System?

Physical activity in adulthood helps maintain bone mass and strength and, later in life, reduces the risk of bone mass loss.

The spine contains 33 vertebrae, nine fused vertebrae and 24 mobile vertebrae. Each vertebra varies in shape and size, with the largest parts being in the lumbar region and the smallest in the cervical region.

The vertebrae form four natural curves. There are two convex-forward curves (backward bending) and two concave-forward curves (forward bending). Each vertebra is separated by intervertebral discs made up of fibrous cartilage. The discs work to allow some movement to occur between the spinal segments while acting as a shock absorber during movement.

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

There is only one anterior concave curve during fetal development, which is referred to as the cardinal curve. When the baby is about three months old and can keep his head upright, a cervical curve develops. The lumbar curve develops later when the child stands and walks. Because cervical and lumbar curves develop in the postpartum period, they are secondary curves.

Skeletal System Anatomy And Physiology

The spine is a flexible column capable of moving in all directions. When viewed from the side, it becomes clear that the spine is curved, with different areas curving either toward the front or back.

When instructed to exercise, be careful to keep your spine in a neutral position or alignment, especially during heavy weight lifting exercises such as squats and deadlifts.

An individual’s spinal alignment is quickly assessed when viewed from the side. Ask the individual to stand next to a plumb line. The line must:

It is important to maintain good posture when exercising. During exercise, good posture is when standard spinal curves are maintained, allowing the muscles to work more efficiently while reducing any unnecessary stress on the joints and ligaments and, in the case of the spine, keeping it healthy.

Osteology: Definition And Applications

The spine’s posture can become exaggerated or excessive as any (or all) of the spinal curves deviate from the normal position of the spine.

Reasons for the spine to deviate from the norm include genetics, lifestyle factors such as sitting, driving, gaming (and other sedentary activities), psychological factors (such as confidence), sports and activity (such as muscle balance and imbalance), and the effects of pregnancy. .

The lumbar curve increases during pregnancy due to the growing weight of the baby and weakening of the abdominal muscles.

What Is The Purpose Of Skeletal System

Scoliosis is characterized by lateral curvature, which is in an “S” or “C” shape. It is usually hereditary, and affects young girls more than boys. Usually, there is

How Bones Work

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