What Is The Polymer Of Nucleic Acids – Nucleic acids are large polymers formed by connecting nucleotides and are found in every cell. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that stores genetic information. If all the DNA in a typical mammalian cell were stretched end to end, it would be more than 2 m long. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is the nucleic acid responsible for using the genetic information encoded in DNA to produce the thousands of proteins found in living organisms.
Nucleotides are joined via the phosphate group of one nucleotide, connecting through an ester bond with the OH group on the third carbon atom of the sugar unit of the second nucleotide. This unit joins with a third nucleotide, and the process is repeated to produce a long nucleic acid chain (Figure (PageIndex)). The backbone of the chain consists of alternating phosphate and sugar units (2-deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). Purine and pyrimidine bases branch from this backbone.
- 1 What Is The Polymer Of Nucleic Acids
- 2 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (dna)
What Is The Polymer Of Nucleic Acids
Each phosphate group has one acidic hydrogen atom that is ionized at physiological pH. This is why these compounds are known as nucleic acids.
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Figure (PageIndex) Structure of a segment of DNA. A similar segment of RNA would have OH groups at each C2′, and uracil would replace thymine.
Like proteins, nucleic acids have a primary structure that is defined as the sequence of their nucleotides. Unlike proteins, which have 20 different types of amino acids, there are only 4 different types of nucleotides in nucleic acids. For amino acid sequences in proteins, the convention is to write the amino acids in order starting with the N-terminal amino acid. In writing nucleotide sequences for nucleic acids, the convention is to write the nucleotides (usually using single-letter abbreviations for bases, shown in Figure (PageIndex)) starting with the nucleotide that has a free phosphate group, known as the 5′ end, and label the nucleotides in order. For DNA, lowercase letters
Is often written in front of the string to indicate that the monomers are deoxyribonucleotides. The final nucleotide has a free OH group on the 3′ carbon atom and is called
. The nucleotide sequence in the DNA segment shown in Figure (PageIndex) would be written 5′-dG-dT-dA-dC-3′, which is often further abbreviated to dGTAC or just GTAC.
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The three-dimensional structure of DNA was the subject of intense research in the late 1940s to early 1950s. Initial work revealed that the polymer has a regular repeating structure. In 1950, Erwin Chargaff of Columbia University showed that the molar amount of adenine (A) in DNA is always equal to that of thymine (T). Similarly, he showed that the molar amount of guanine (G) is the same as that of cytosine (C). Chargaff drew no conclusions from his work, but others soon did.
At Cambridge University in 1953, James D. Watson and Francis Crick announced that they had a model for the secondary structure of DNA. Using information from Chargaff’s experiments (as well as other experiments) and data from Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray studies (which involved sophisticated science, physics, and mathematics), Watson and Crick worked with models not unlike children’s constructs and finally concluded that is DNA composed of two strands of nucleic acid that run antiparallel to each other—that is, side by side with the 5′ end of one strand next to the 3′ end of the other. Moreover, as their model showed, the two strands are twisted to form a double helix—a structure that can be compared to a spiral staircase, with the phosphate and sugar groups (the backbone of the nucleic acid polymer) representing the outer edges of the staircase. Purine and pyrimidine bases face the inside of the helix, with guanine always opposite cytosine and adenine always opposite thymine. These specific base pairs, called complementary bases, are steps or treads, in our staircase analogy (Figure (PageIndex)).
Image (PageIndex) DNA double helix. (a) This represents a computer-generated model of the DNA double helix. (b) This represents a satytic representation of a double helix, showing the complementary bases.
The structure proposed by Watson and Crick provided clues to the mechanisms by which cells can divide into two identical, functional daughter cells; how genetic information is transmitted to new generations; and even how proteins are built to the required specifications. All of these abilities depend on complementary base pairing. Figure (PageIndex) shows two sets of base pairs and illustrates two things. First, a pyrimidine is paired with a purine in each case, so the long dimensions of both pairs are identical (1.08 nm).
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Figure (PageIndex) Complementary base pairing. Complementary bases are connected to each other by a hydrogen bond: (a) thymine and adenine; (b) cytosine and guanine.
If two pyrimidines are paired or two purines are paired, two pyrimidines would take up less space than a purine and a pyrimidine, and two purines would take up more space, as shown in Figure (PageIndex). If these pairings were ever to occur, the structure of DNA would be like a staircase made of steps of different widths. In order for the two strands of the double helix to fit together properly, a pyrimidine must always be paired with a purine. The other thing you should notice in the (PageIndex) picture is that the correct pairing allows for the formation of three instances of a hydrogen bond between guanine and cytosine and two between adenine and thymine. The additional contribution of this hydrogen bond provides great stability to the DNA double helix. They consist of nucleotides, which are monomeric components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). If the sugar is ribose, the polymer is RNA; if the sugar is deoxyribose, a variant of ribose, the polymer is DNA.
Nucleic acids are chemical compounds found in nature. They transmit information in the cells and make up the genetic material. These acids are very common in all living things, where they create, encode and store information in every living cell of every life form on Earth. In turn, they sd and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus. From the inner workings of a cell to the young of a living being, they contain and impart information through a series of nucleic acids. This gives RNA and DNA their unmistakable “ladder” order of nucleotides within their molecules. Both play a key role in directing protein synthesis.
Strings of nucleotides are connected in the form of helical backbones and assembled into chains of bases or base pairs selected from the five primary or canonical nucleobases. RNA usually forms a chain of single bases, while DNA forms a chain of base pairs. The bases found in RNA and DNA are: adine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and uracil. Thymine occurs only in DNA, and uracil only in RNA. Using amino acids and protein synthesis,
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (dna)
The specific sequence in DNA of these pairs of nucleobases helps to maintain and sd coded instructions as ges. In RNA, the sequencing of base pairs helps create new proteins that determine most of the chemical processes of all life forms.
The Swiss scientist Friedrich Miescher discovered nucleic acid, giving it its first name, nucleic, in 1868. He later proposed the idea that it might be involved in heredity.
Nucleic acid was first discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869 at the University of Tübing, Germany. He gave it the first name as Nuclein.
In the early 1880s, Albrecht Kossel further purified the substance and discovered its extremely acidic properties. Later he also identified nucleobases. In 1889 Richard Altmann coined the term nucleic acid – at that time DNA and RNA were not differentiated.
Nucleic Acids Dna & Rna.
In 1944, the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment showed that DNA is the carrier of genetic information, and in 1953, Watson and Crick proposed the double helical structure of DNA.
Experimental studies of nucleic acids form a major part of modern biological and medical research and form the basis for gum and forsic science, as well as biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry.
The term nucleic acid is a general name for DNA and RNA, members of the biopolymer family,
And is synonymous with polynucleotide. Nucleic acids are named after their initial discovery within the nucleus and the presence of phosphate groups (linked to phosphoric acid).
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Although first discovered in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, nucleic acids are now known to be found in all forms of life, including bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and viruses (There is debate as to whether viruses are living or non-living). All living cells contain both DNA and RNA (except some cells such as mature red blood cells), while viruses contain either DNA or RNA, but usually not both.
The basic constituent of biological nucleic acids is a nucleotide, each of which contains a ptosis sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group and a nucleobase.
Nucleic acids are generally very large molecules. Indeed, DNA molecules are probably the largest single molecules known. The well-studied biological nucleic acid molecules range in size from 21 nucleotides (small interfering RNA) to large chromosomes (human chromosome 1 is a single molecule containing 247 million base pairs
There are, however, numerous exceptions – some viruses have gomes
What Is The Basic Unit Of A Nucleic Acid?
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