What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell – A living entity survives by breathing. The oxygen that is inhaled is transmitted throughout the body to maintain the normal functioning of all organs within. But have you ever wondered how this breathing process happens at the cellular level. Before understanding this, one must know which cell organelle is responsible for cellular respiration. It is mitochondria, which is also referred to as the powerhouse of cells. Every cell of our body contains these organelles.

Like all other cell organelles, the mitochondrion is also a membrane-enclosed cell organelle, contained in the cytosol (intracellular fluid) of eukaryotic cells (cells that contain a nucleus). The structure consists of the following parts:

What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

This consists of a semi-permeable phospholipid bi-layer, composed of porins (protein structures). This layer is permeable to ions, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and nutrient molecules.

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This is a complex but permeable membrane made up of complex molecules of the electron transport system, ATP synthetase complex and transport proteins. This layer allows oxygen, water and carbon dioxide.

Cristae are shelf like folds in inner membrane. They help in the expansion of the inner cell membrane structure when there is a need for more space to accommodate more molecules of mitochondrial DNA.

This is the space between outer membrane and inner membrane. Intermembrane space is mainly responsible for oxidative phosphorylation.

Cytoplasmic matrix contains DNA molecules (responsible for cellular respiration), enzymes (responsible for citric acid cycle reactions), dissolved gases (such as oxygen, carbon dioxide), recyclable intermediates (serve as energy needles) and water.

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Now that we know the parts of mitochondria, let’s understand the important functions of this organelle. One of the most important mitochondrial functions in a cell is cellular respiration. So what is cellular respiration anyway? It is a chemical process to release energy stored in glucose. The energy used to break down glucose is provided by ATP molecules. And ATP molecules are produced by this cell organelle. The entire process of aerobic cellular respiration is a 3 step process. The steps are listed below:

The term glycolysis itself means “breaking down sugar”. This is the first stage of cellular respiration. Glucose is a six carbon sugar. The enzymes in the cytoplasmic matrix initiate glycolysis in which a glucose molecule is oxidized to 2 molecules of three carbon sugars. Products of glycolysis are two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvic acid and two NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) molecules (which are electron carrying molecules).

This is the second phase of cellular respiration. The citric acid cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle. The three carbon molecules produced as a result of glycolysis are converted into acetyl compounds. However, the intermediate reactions of this process give ATP molecules of energy and also NAD and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) molecules. NAD and FAD molecules are further reduced to high energy electrons in the Kerb cycle.

What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

The electron transport chain consists of a series of electron carriers that are generated in the membrane of the mitochondria, from the Krebs cycle. The ATP molecules are further produced by the chemical reactions of these electron carrier molecules. A eukaryotic cell produces about 36 ATP molecules after cellular respiration.

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The topic of cellular functions, such as the functions and structure of mitochondria is quite interesting because one understands the intricacies in our body and how the body works on a cellular level.

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What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

Kara Rogers Kara Rogers is the senior editor of biomedical sciences at Encyclopædia, where she oversees a range of content from medicine and genetics to microorganisms. She joined in 2006 and…

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The editors of the Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained through working on that content or through studying for an advanced degree. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors.

A mitochondrion is a round to oval-shaped organelle found in the cells of almost all eukaryotic organisms. It produces energy, known as ATP, for the cell through a series of chemical reactions.

Known as the “powerhouses of the cell”, the mitochondria produce the energy necessary for the survival and function of the cell. Through a series of chemical reactions, mitochondria break down glucose into an energy molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used to fuel various other cellular processes. In addition to producing energy, mitochondria storecalciumforcellsignaling, generate heat, and are involved in cell growth and death.

Mitochondria are found in the cells of almost every eukaryotic organism, including plants and animals. Cells that require a lot of energy, such as muscle cells, may contain hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. Some types of cells, such as red blood cells, lack mitochondria entirely. As prokaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea do not have mitochondria.

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Mitochondria, membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells (cells with clearly defined nuclei), whose primary function is to generate large amounts of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria are typically round to oval in shape and range in size from 0.5 to 10 μm. In addition to producing energy, mitochondria store calcium for cell signaling activities, generate heat, and mediate cell growth and death.

The number of mitochondria per cell varies widely—for example, in humans, erythrocytes (red blood cells) contain no mitochondria, while liver cells and muscle cells may contain hundreds or even thousands. The only eukaryotic organism known to lack mitochondria is the oxymonad

Species. Mitochondria are unlike other cellular organelles in that they have two different membranes and a unique genome and reproduce by binary fission; these features show that mitochondria share an evolutionary past with prokaryotes (single-celled organisms).

What Is The Mitochondria Of A Cell

Most of the proteins and other molecules that make up mitochondria originate in the cell nucleus. However, 37 genes are contained in the human mitochondrial genome, of which 13 produce different components of the electron transport chain (ETC). In many organisms, the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited. This is because the mother’s egg cell donates the majority of the cytoplasm to the embryo, and the mitochondria inherited from the father’s sperm are usually destroyed.

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The outer mitochondrial membrane is freely permeable to small molecules and contains special channels capable of transporting large molecules. In contrast, the inner membrane is much less permeable, allowing only very small molecules to cross into the gel-like matrix that makes up the central mass of the organelle. The matrix contains the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the mitochondrial genome and the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle, or Krebs cycle), which metabolizes nutrients into by-products that the mitochondria can use for energy production.

The processes that convert these by-products into energy occur mainly on the inner membrane, which is folded into folds known as cristae, which house the protein components of the main energy-generating system of cells, the ETC. The ETC uses a series of oxidation-reduction reactions to move electrons from one protein component to the next, eventually producing free energy that is used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to ATP. This process, known as chemiosmotic coupling of oxidative phosphorylation, drives almost all cellular activities, including those that generate muscle movement and fuel brain functions. The definition of mitochondria in biology goes like this:

Mitochondria are round or oval-shaped, double-membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells that bear the responsibility of keeping a cell charged to do cellular work by producing energy units called ATP.

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