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There are many sources of digestive juices in the small intestine. Secretions into the small intestine are controlled by nerves, including the vagus, and hormones. The most effective stimuli for secretion are local mechanical or chemical stimuli of the intestinal mucous membrane. Such stimuli are always present in the intestine in the form of chyme and food particles. The gastric chyme that is emptied into the duodenum contains gastric secretions that continue their digestive processes for a short time in the small intestine. One of the main sources of digestive secretions is the pancreas, a large gland that produces both digestive enzymes and hormones. The pancreas empties its secret into the duodenum through the main pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) in the duodenal papilla (papilla of Vater) and the accessory pancreatic duct a few centimeters away from it. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Liver secretions are delivered to the duodenum by the common bile duct through the gallbladder and are also received through the duodenal papilla.
What Is The Largest Organ Of The Digestive System
The composition of the succus entericus, the mixture of substances that are absorbed into the small intestine, varies slightly in different parts of the intestine. Except in the duodenum, very little fluid is secreted, even under stimulated conditions. In the duodenum, for example, where Brunner’s glands are located, there is more mucus in the secretion. In general, the secretion of the small intestine is a thin, colorless or slightly straw-colored fluid, containing flecks of mucus, water, inorganic salts, and organic matter. The inorganic salts are those common in other body fluids, with the bicarbonate level being higher than in blood. In addition to mucus, the organic matter includes cellular debris and enzymes, including a pepsin-like protease (from the duodenum only), amylase, lipase, at least two peptidases, sucrase, maltase, enterokinase, alkaline phosphatase, nucleophosphatases, and nucleocytases.
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The mucosa of the large intestine is punctuated by numerous water-absorbing membranes and lined with mucus-secreting goblet cells. At the lower end of the rectum, the circular and longitudinal muscle layers end in the internal and external anal sphincters.
The large intestine, or colon, is a reservoir for the liquids that are emptied into the small intestine. It has a much larger diameter than the small intestine (about 2.5 cm, or 1 inch, compared to 6 cm, or 3 inches, in the large intestine), but at 150 cm (5 feet), it is more less than one-. a quarter of the length of the small intestine. The main functions of the colon are to absorb water; to maintain the osmolality, or level of solutes, of the blood by producing and absorbing electrolytes (substances, such as sodium and chloride, which in solution carry an electrical charge) from the chyme; and storing fecal material until it is emptied with feces. The large intestine also secretes mucus, which helps lubricate the contents of the intestine and facilitate their passage through the intestine. Each day about 1.5 to 2 liters (about 2 quarts) of chyme passes through the ileocecal valve that separates the small and large intestines. The chyme is reduced by absorption in the colon to about 150 ml (5 fluid ounces). The remaining indigestible material, along with sloughed mucosal cells, dead bacteria, and food residues not digested by bacteria, make up the feces.
) and vitamin K, a vitamin that is essential for several metabolic functions as well as the function of the central nervous system.
The large intestine can be divided into cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The cecum, the first part of the large bone, is a sac with a closed end that resides on the right iliac fossa, hollow inside the ilium (the upper part of the hipbone). The ileocecal valve protects the opening of the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) into the cecum. The circular muscle fibers of the ileum and those of the cecum join to form the circular sphincter muscle of the ileocecal valve.
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The ascending colon extends from the cecum at the level of the ileocecal valve to the bend in the colon known as the hepatic flexure, which is located below and behind the right lobe of the liver; posteriorly, it is in contact with the posterior abdominal wall and the right kidney. The ascending colon is covered with peritoneum except on its posterior surface.
The transverse colon is variable in position, largely depending on how long the stomach is, but it is usually located in the subcostal plane – that is, at the level of the 10th rib. On the left side of the stomach, it rises to the cover called the splenic flexure, which may prevent the fate. The transverse colon is attached to the diaphragm opposite the 11th rib by a piece of peritoneum.
The descending colon goes down and in front of the left kidney and the left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the iliac crest (upper end of the hipbone). The descending colon is more likely than the ascending colon to be surrounded by peritoneum.
The sigmoid colon is commonly divided into iliac and pelvic parts. The iliac colon extends from the crest of the ilium, or upper border of the hip bone, to the inner border of the psoas muscle, which lies in the left iliac fossa. Like the descending colon, the iliac colon is usually covered with peritoneum. The pelvic colon lies in the true pelvis (lower part of the pelvis) and makes a couple of bends, reaching over to the right side of the pelvis and then bends back and, at the mid- line, turning suddenly down to the point where it grows. the rectum.
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The layers that make up the colon wall are in some ways similar to the layers of the small intestine; there are certain differences, however. The outside of the colon is very different from the side of the small intestine because of features called taeniae, haustra, and epiploicae appendages. The taeniae are three long bands of longitudinal muscle fibers, about 1 cm wide, that are approximately equally spaced around the circumference of the colon. Between the thick bands of the taeniae, there is a thin layer of longitudinal muscle fibers. Since the taeniae are slightly shorter than the large intestine, the intestinal wall constricts and creates circular furrows of varying depth called haustra, or sacculations. The appendages epiploicae are collections of fatty tissue under the covering membrane. On the ascending and descending colon, they are usually found in two rows, but on the transverse colon they form one row.
The inner surface of the colon has many fragments lined with mucous glands and numerous goblet cells, and lacks the rings of villi and plicae typical of the small intestine. There are many solitary lymphatic nodules but no Peyer’s patches. A feature of the colonic mucosa is deep tubular pits, increasing in depth towards the rectum.
The inner layer of the muscles of the large intestine is crowned in a tight spiral around the colon, so that contraction leads to the division of the lumen and its contents. The spiral of the outer layer, on the other hand, follows a loosely distributed course, and the contraction of this muscle causes the contents of the colon to move forward and backward. Most of the content, especially the amount of undigested fibers, affects these muscle functions.
The arterial blood supply to the large intestine is provided by branches of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (both of which are branches of the abdominal aorta) and the hypogastric branch of the internal iliac artery (which supplies supply blood to the pelvic walls and viscera, the organs, the hips, and the inner thighs). The vessels form a continuous series of arches from which vessels rise into the large intestine. Venous blood is drained from the colon by branches that form venous arches similar to those in the arteries. These eventually drain into the superior and inferior mesenteric veins, which eventually join the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
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Local contractions and backward movements ensure mixing of the contents and good contact with the mucosa. Colonic motility is stimulated by mastication and by the presence of fat, unsaturated bile salts, bile acid, and the peptide hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin. The hormones secretin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide act to suppress motility. The electrical activity of the colon muscles is more complex than that of the small intestine. Variations from the basic rhythmic movements of the colon are present in the lower (peripheral) half of the colon and in the rectum. Slow wave activity that produces contractions from the ascending colon to the descending colon occurs at a rate of 11 cycles per minute, while slow wave activity in the sigmoid colon and rectum occurs at 6 rounds per minute. Local contractions move distantly
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