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What Is The Importance Of Nucleic Acids

What Is The Importance Of Nucleic Acids

Richard J. Roberts Research Director, New England Biolabs, Ipswich, Massachusetts, USA 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Biol 1345 Module 2 Nucleic Acid

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Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as primary information-carrying molecules in cells. They play a particularly important role in directing protein synthesis. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Nucleic acids are long chain molecules made up of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base linked to a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, which in turn is attached to a phosphate group.

Each nucleic acid contains four of the five possible nitrogen-containing bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), anduracil (U). A and G are classified as aspurins and C, T and U are called pyrimidines. All nucleic acids contain the bases A, C, and G; T, however, is found only in DNA and U in RNA.

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Nucleic acid, a naturally occurring chemical compound that can be broken down to form phosphoric acid, sugars, and a mixture of organic bases (purines and pyrimidines). Nucleic acids are the molecules that carry the basic information of the cell, which direct the process of protein synthesis and determine the hereditary characteristics of every living being. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is the master blueprint of life and makes up the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses. RNA is the genetic material of some viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes, such as making proteins.

This article covers the chemistry of nucleic acids, describing the structures and properties that allow them to serve as carriers of genetic information. For a discussion of the genetic code,

Nucleic acids are polynucleotides, that is, long-chain molecules that are made up of a number of nearly identical building blocks, nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base linked to a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, which in turn is attached to a phosphate group. Each nucleic acid contains four of the five possible nitrogen-containing bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U). A and G are classified as purines, and C, T, and U are collectively called pyrimidines. All nucleic acids contain the bases A, C, and G; T, however, is found only in DNA and U in RNA. The pentose sugar of DNA (2′-deoxyribose) differs from the sugar of RNA (ribose) by the absence of a hydroxyl group (—OH) on the 2′ carbon of the sugar ring. A sugar attached to one of the bases without an attached phosphate group is known as a nucleoside. A phosphate group connects successive sugar residues by bridging the 5′-hydroxyl group on one sugar to the 3′-hydroxyl group of the next sugar in the chain. These nucleoside bonds are called phosphodiester bonds and are the same in RNA and DNA.

What Is The Importance Of Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides are synthesized from precursors available in the cell. The ribose phosphate portion of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is synthesized from glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. A ring of six pyrimidine atoms is first synthesized and then attached to the ribose phosphate. Two rings of purines are synthesized when attached to ribosephosphate during the assembly of adenine or guanine nucleosides. In both cases, the end product is a nucleotide bearing a phosphate attached to the 5′ carbon on the sugar. Finally, a specialized enzyme called a kinase adds two phosphate groups using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the phosphate donor to form ribonucleoside triphosphate, the immediate precursor of RNA. For DNA, the 2′-hydroxyl group is removed from ribonucleoside diphosphate to yield deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate. An additional phosphate group from ATP is then added by another kinase to form deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, the immediate precursor of DNA.

Solution: Pharmaceutical Importance Of Nucleic Acid

During normal cellular metabolism, RNA is constantly being made and degraded. Purine and pyrimidine residues are reused in several salvage pathways to make more genetic material. A purine is saved as the corresponding nucleotide, while a pyrimidine is saved as a nucleoside. Nucleic acid structure and function. Biomedical Significance Genetic information is encoded in the length of the polymer molecule, which is made up of only four types.

“Structure and function of nucleic acid. Biomedical Significance Genetic information is encoded in the length of a polymer molecule composed of only four types.— Presentation transcript:

2 Biomedical Significance Genetic information is encoded in a length of polymer molecule made up of only four types of monomeric units. This polymer molecule, DNA, is the chemical basis of heredity and is organized into genes, the basic units of genetic information. The main information pathway DNA directs the synthesis of RNA, which in turn directs the synthesis of protein. Genes do not work independently; their reproduction and function are controlled by different gene products, often in cooperation with components of different signal transduction pathways.

3 Biomedical Significance Knowledge of nucleic acid structure and function is important for understanding many aspects of genetics and pathophysiology, as well as the genetic basis of disease.

Nucleic Acid Tertiary Structure

5 DNA contains GENETIC INFORMATION DNA can transform cells DNA contains four deoxynucleotides: deoxyadenylate, deoxyguanylate, deoxycytidylate, and thymidylate The monomeric units of DNA are held in polymeric form with 3′, 5′-phosphodiesterases that contain the information DNA’s genetic code with individual bridges) is in the sequence in which these monomers are arranged.

6 Polynucleotides are directed macromolecules The polymer has polarity, with one end having a 5′-hydroxyl or phosphate terminal and the other having a 3′-phosphate or hydroxyl terminal. 5′-terminus & 3′-terminus

7 Polynucleotide Representation The base sequence or primary structure of a polynucleotide can be represented as The phosphodiester bond is represented by P or p, the bases by a single letter, and the pentoses by a vertical line.

What Is The Importance Of Nucleic Acids

8 Polynucleotide representation More compact notation pGpGpApTpCpA The most compact representation shows only the GGATCA 5′- base sequence on the left and all phosphodiester bonds are 3′ → 5′.

Secondary Structure Determination Of Conserved Sars Cov 2 Rna Elements By Nmr Spectroscopy

9 Oligonucleotides, nucleic acids containing ≤ 50 nucleotides Polynucleotides, which are longer mononucleotides (nucleoside monophosphates) linked by 3′ → 5′- phosphodiester bonds Polynucleotides can be RNA Contain ribonucleosides (ribonucleoside oxides and DNA -urioxides and DNA)urioxides T )

11 single-stranded DNA sequence held by a phosphodiester backbone between 2′-deoxyribosyl moieties attached to nucleobases by N-glycosidic linkage. backbone has polarity (ie direction)

12 THE STRUCTURE OF DNA The structure of DNA is a double-stranded helix. one strand runs in the 5′ to 3′ direction and the other runs in the 3′ to 5′ direction. Pairings between purine and pyrimidine nucleotides on opposite strands are highly specific and depend on the hydrogen bonding of A to T and G to C.

13 The concentration of deoxyadenosine (A) nucleotides is equal to thymidine (T) nucleotides (A = T), while the concentration of deoxyguanosine (G) nucleotides is equal to deoxycytidine (C) nucleotides (G = C)

Nucleic Acid Amphiphiles: Synthesis, Properties, And Applications: Molecular Therapy

25 G-quadruple structure. The four covalent guanines form a tetrameric structure, forming Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. The quaternary center cavity can accommodate a sodium or potassium ion with coordination to the four 0-6 oxygens.

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In order for this website to work, we record user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including our Cookie Policy. Nucleic acids are vital to cell function, and therefore to life. There are two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. Together, they keep track of the hereditary information in the cell so that the cell can maintain itself, grow, produce offspring, and perform whatever specialized functions it is designed to do. So nucleic acids control the information that makes every cell and every organism what it is.

What Is The Importance Of Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are macromolecules found in cells. Like proteins and polysaccharides and other macromolecules, nucleic acids are long molecules made up of many similar linked units.

The Role Of Dna In Evolution

There are two classes of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Each is made up of four different nucleotides: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine in DNA and adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil in RNA.

DNA is an inherited molecule that stores and transmits information that cells need to survive and reproduce. It has two functions: to reproduce during cell division and to direct the transcription (creation) of RNA.

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