What Is The Function Of The Kidneys – The kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space behind the abdomen and filter the blood to make urine.

They are located on the left and right sides of the retroperitoneal cavity and are about 12 cm (4+ 1 ⁄2 in) in length in adults.

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys

They receive blood from paired ral arteries; blood exits into paired ral veins. Each kidney connects to the bladder, a ureter, a tube that carries urine that is excreted.

Kidney Histology: Nephron, Loop Of Henle, Functions

The kidney is involved in controlling the volume of various body fluids, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and the removal of toxins. Filtration takes place in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume filling the kidneys is filtered. Examples of reabsorbed substances are non-soluble water, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose and amino acids. Examples of excreted substances include hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. Nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult human kidney has about 1 million nephrons, while the mouse kidney has only 12,500. Kidneys also perform functions depending on nephrons. For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesizes the hormones erythropoietin and rin.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a leading public health problem worldwide. The global estimated prevalence of CKD is 13.4%, and the number of patients with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy is estimated at 5 to 7 million.

Procedures used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of urine (urinalysis), measurement of kidney function by calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine; and renal biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one of these (or both in sequence) is almost always used, the ral function drops below 15%. Nephrectomy is often used to treat squamous cell carcinoma.

Ral physiology is the study of kidney function. Nephrology is a medical specialty that addresses diseases of kidney function: these include CKD, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis. Urology addresses diseases of the kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, ral cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.

Kidney Anatomy, Parts & Function, Renal Cortex, Capsule, Nephron, Calyx, Pyramids

The word “ral” is an adjective meaning “pertaining to the kidneys” and has roots in Frch or Late Latin. According to some opinions, “ral” should be replaced by “kidney” in scientific works such as “renal artery”, while other experts advocated the preservation of the use of the word “ral” in appropriate cases, including “ral artery”.

Illustration showing the human body with the positions of the organs. The kidneys are at the level of vertebrae T12 to L3.

In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity, together on each side of the spine, and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle.

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys

Abdominal asymmetry caused by the position of the liver usually results in the right kidney being slightly lower and smaller than the left and slightly more medial to the left kidney.

Kidney (anatomy, Definition, Function)

And the right one is slightly lower. The right kidney is located just below the diaphragm and behind the liver. The left kidney is located below the diaphragm and behind the spleen. Above each kidney is an adrenal gland. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the 11th and 12th ribs. Each kidney, along with the adrenal gland, is surrounded by two layers of fat: the peri-aral fat is between the ral fascia and the ral capsule, and the para-aral fat is superior to the ral fascia.

The concave area at the concave border is the ral hilum, where the ral artery crosses the kidney and the ral vein and ureter separate. The kidney is surrounded by hard fibrous tissue, ral capsule, which is itself surrounded by periral fat, ral fascia, and pararal fat. The anterior (front) surface of these tissues is the peritoneum, and the posterior (posterior) surface is the transversalis fascia.

The upper pole of the right kidney is adjacent to the liver. It is next to the spleen for the left kidney. Thus, both move downward during inhalation.

1. Ral pyramid • 2. Interlobular artery • 3. Ral artery • 4. Ral vein 5. Ral hilum • 6. Ral pelvis • 7. Ureter • 8. Lesser shell • 9. Ral capsule • 10. Inferi or 1. Ral capsule. . Superior ral capsule • 12. Interlobular vein

Renal Diet: Foods For Healthy Kidneys

The functional substance or parchyma of the human kidney is divided into two main structures: the outer ral cortex and the inner ral medulla. Grossly, these structures take the form of eight to 18 cone-shaped ral lobes, each with a ral cortex surrounding a portion of the medulla called a ral pyramid.

The tip or papilla of each pyramid empties the urine into a small bowl; small calyxes empty into large calyxes, and large calyxes empty into ral calyxes. This becomes the ureter. At the hilum, the ureter and ral vein exit the kidney and the ral artery. These structures are surrounded by hilar fat and lymph tissue with lymph nodes. The hilar fat is adjacent to a fat-filled space called the hilar sinus. The ral sinus together contains the ral pelvis and calyces and separates these structures from the ral medullary tissue.

The kidneys receive blood from the left and right ral arteries, which branch directly from the abdominal aorta. In an adult, the kidneys receive about 20-25% of the cardiac output.

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys

Each ral artery branches into segmental arteries, which then divide into interlobar arteries, which drain the ral capsule and extend through the ral columns between the ral pyramids. The interlobar arteries supply blood to the arcuate arteries that cross the border of the cortex and medulla. Each arched artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that feed the glomeruli.

Understanding How Kidneys Work And How To Keep Them Healthy

Blood flows from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava. After filtration, blood moves through a network of small vessels (vules) that connect to interlobular vessels. As with the distribution of the arterioles, the veins follow the same pattern: they supply blood to the interlobular arcuate veins, returning to the interlobar veins, which form the renal veins.

The kidney and nervous system are connected through the ral plexus, whose fibers travel along the ral arteries to reach each kidney.

The kidney also receives information from the parasympathetic nervous system via the ral branches of the vagus nerve; its function is not yet clear.

The input from the kidney passes to the T10-11 levels of the spinal cord and is secreted in the corresponding dermatome.

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys In The Human Body?

Nephrons, the functional structures of the kidney that produce urine, surround the cortex and medulla. The primary filtering part of the nephron is the ral corpuscle located in the cortex. This is followed by the ral tube, which passes from the cortex to the deep medullary pyramids. The medullary ray, part of the ral cortex, is a collection of ral tubules that drain into a single collecting duct.

Ral histology studies the microscopic structure of the kidney. There are at least 26 different types of cells in the adult human kidney.

In humans, approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes are expressed in human cells, and almost 70% of these genes are expressed in normal, mature kidneys.

What Is The Function Of The Kidneys

More than 300 ges are more specifically expressed in the kidney, with only about 50 ges being highly specific for the kidney. Many of the relevant kidney-specific proteins are expressed in the cell membrane and function as transport proteins. The most highly expressed protein specific to the kidney is uromodulin, the most abundant protein in urine, which inhibits the calcification and growth of bacteria. Specific proteins are expressed in different parts of the kidney by podocin and nephrin expressed in glomeruli, solute carrier family protein SLC22A8 expressed in proximal tubules, calbindin expressed in distal tubules, and aquaporin 2 expressed in collecting duct cells.

The Endocrine System 8: Kidneys, Heart And Skin

The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called nephrogenesis, goes through a series of three successive developmental phases: pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros. Metanephrosis is the primordia of permanent kidney.

The nephron shown here is the functional unit of the kidneys. Its parts are labeled except for the (grey) connecting tubule, which is located after the distal convoluted tubule (dark red) and before the large (gray) collecting duct (mislabeled collecting duct).

Kidneys excrete various waste products resulting from metabolism into urine. The microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. It processes the blood supplied to it by filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion; the result of these processes is the production of urine. These include nitrogenous wastes of urea from protein catabolism and uric acid from nucleic acid metabolism. The ability of mammals and some birds to compress waste into a volume of urine that is much smaller than the volume of blood from which the waste is removed is based on a sophisticated counterreproductive mechanism. It requires several independent nephron properties to function: a tight configuration of tubules, water and ion permeability in the descending limb, water impermeability in the ascending limb, and, in most cases, active ion transport.

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