What Is The Function Of Human Brain – The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotions, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates our body. The brain and the spinal cord that extends from it together make up the central nervous system, or CNS.

The average adult’s 3-pound brain is about 60% fat. The remaining 40% is a combination of water, protein, carbohydrates and salts. The brain itself is not a muscle. It contains blood vessels and nerves, including neurons and glial cells.

What Is The Function Of Human Brain

What Is The Function Of Human Brain

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer part, while white matter describes the lighter, inner part underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed, with white matter on the outside and gray matter on the inside.

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Gray matter is mainly composed of neuron somas (round central cell bodies), while white matter is mainly composed of axons (the long stalks that connect neurons) that are wrapped in myelin (a protective covering). The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on a particular scan.

Each region fulfills a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter relays that information to other parts of the nervous system.

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each one. Some, for example, make you feel tired, while others cause you pain.

Some messages are stored in the brain, while others are transmitted through the spinal cord and the vast network of nerves in the body to distant limbs. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons (nerve cells).

Human Brain Functional Scheme Royalty Free Vector Image

The cerebrum (front part of the brain) consists of gray matter (cerebral cortex) and white matter in its center. The largest part of the brain, the cerebrum, initiates and coordinates movement and regulates temperature. Other areas of the brain enable speech, judgment, thinking and reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning. Other functions deal with sight, hearing, touch, and other senses.

Cortex is Latin for “bark” and describes the outer gray matter of the brain. The cortex has a large surface area due to its folds and accounts for about half the weight of the brain.

The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres or hemispheres. It is covered with ridges (giri) and folds (sultsi). The two hemispheres are joined by a large, deep fissure (the interhemispheric fissure, AKA the median longitudinal fissure) that runs from the front to the back of the head. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. The two halves communicate with each other through a C-shaped structure of white matter and nerve pathways called the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is located in the center of the brain.

What Is The Function Of Human Brain

The brainstem (half of the brain) connects the brain to the spinal cord. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla.

The Human Brain

The spinal cord extends from the floor of the medulla and through a large opening in the floor of the skull. Supported by the spine, the spinal cord carries messages to the brain and the rest of the body.

The cerebellum (“cerebellum”) is a fist-sized portion of the brain located at the back of the head, below the temporal and occipital lobes and above the brainstem. Like the cerebral cortex, it has two hemispheres. The outer part contains neurons, and the inner part communicates with the cerebral cortex. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium. New studies are investigating the cerebellum’s role in thought, emotion, and social behavior, as well as its possible involvement in addiction, autism, and schizophrenia.

Each cerebral hemisphere (parts of the brain) has four areas called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

Sometimes called the “master gland,” the pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located deep in the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland controls the work of other glands in the body by regulating the flow of hormones from the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. It receives chemical signals from the hypothalamus through its trunk and blood supply.

Class 10] Human Brain

The hypothalamus sits above the pituitary gland and sends it chemical messages that control its function. It regulates body temperature, synchronizes sleep patterns, controls hunger and thirst, and plays a role in some aspects of memory and emotion.

Small, almond-shaped structures, the amygdala is located under each half (hemisphere) of the brain. Included in the limbic system, the amygdala regulates emotion and memory and is associated with the brain’s reward system, stress, and the fight-or-flight response when someone perceives a threat.

A curved seahorse-shaped organ at the base of each temporal lobe, the hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the hippocampal formation. It supports memory, learning, navigation and spatial perception. It receives information from the cerebral cortex and may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease.

What Is The Function Of Human Brain

The pineal gland is located deep in the brain and is attached by a stalk to the upper part of the third ventricle. The pineal gland responds to light and dark and secretes melatonin, which regulates circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle.

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Deep in the brain are four open spaces with passages between them. They also open under the central spinal canal and the arachnoid layer of the membranes.

The ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes away waste and impurities, and supplies nutrients.

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries run along the sides of your neck and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front of the brain.

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The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column to the skull, where they join the brainstem to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the back of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front to the back of the brain and helps the arterial systems communicate with each other.

The first two nerves originate in the brain, and the remaining 10 cranial nerves exit the brainstem, which has three parts: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla.

What Is The Function Of Human Brain

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