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What Effect Does Caffeine Have On The Brain
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Effects Of Caffeine On The Brain And Body
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By Melania Ruggiero Melania Ruggiero Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, †, Rosa Calvello Rosa Calvello Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, †, Chiara Porro Chiara Porro Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 2, Giovanni Messina Giovanni Messina Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 2, Antonia Cianciulli Antonia Cianciulli Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1 and Maria Antonietta Panaro Maria Antonietta Panaro Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, *
Received: October 7, 2022 / Revised: October 18, 2022 / Accepted: October 25, 2022 / Published: October 26, 2022
Caffeine’s Effects On The Brain
In recent years, there has been considerable research showing that coffee consumption appears to be beneficial to human health as it contains a mixture of different bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, alkaloids, diterpenes and polyphenols. Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are debilitating and incurable diseases associated with central, peripheral and muscular nervous system damage. Several studies demonstrate that neuroinflammation mediated by glial cells—such as microglia and astrocytes—is a critical contributor to neurodegeneration that causes dysfunction of brain homeostasis, leading to a progressive loss of neuronal cell structure, function, and number. This happens over time and leads to brain damage and physical impairment. The most well-known chronic NDs are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD). According to epidemiological studies, regular coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize the latest research on the potential effects of caffeine in the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders and discuss the role of controlled caffeine delivery systems in maintaining high plasma caffeine concentrations over a long period of time.
Neuroinflammation is a defense mechanism designed to protect the brain by removing or disrupting harmful agents and microorganisms . Although this host mechanism appears to produce beneficial effects—by removing cellular debris and promoting tissue repair, as well as preserving the integrity of the brain—prolonged and sustained inflammation can lead to some circumstances that are harmful, causing nerve tissue damage, thus leading to death. neurons. and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. [2. 3]. Neuroinflammation is the inflammatory response described in the brain and involves some glial cells, called microglia and astrocytes, which actively participate in the innate immune response of the central nervous system (CNS). However, if microglia and astrocytes remain activated for too long, they become responsible for a persistent inflammatory response that can cause neurodegenerative disorders .
Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made regarding the role that microglial cells play in the development of CNS diseases, these advances demonstrate how microglial activation is a hallmark of a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ), Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as other brain diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD) due to dysregulation of defense function and neuroinflammation [ 4 , 5 ].
Therefore, erasing the negative effects associated with microglial activation has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy to counteract neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation [ 6 , 7 ].
How Long Does Caffeine Stay In Your System? The Surprising Truth
Unfortunately, to date, no drug capable of blocking or slowing the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies has been described, thus, in fact, a large number of investigations focus attention on the search for natural bioactive compounds that could have beneficial effects on brain disorders , without affecting health. cells.
Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) (Figure 1) is the most consumed psychostimulant, being one of the major components of coffee, tea and energy drinks. An estimated 166.63 million 60 kg bags of coffee were consumed worldwide in 2020/2021. In addition, global coffee consumption is expected to increase . The most important physiologically effective bioactive compounds present in coffee include several antioxidants such as chlorogenic acid, lignan, melanoids, cafestrol, trigonelline, kahweol and caffeine .
Caffeine intake from all sources is estimated to be between 70 and 350 mg/person/day. Furthermore, a single cup of coffee contains between 0.4 and 2.5 mg/kg of caffeine, which is absorbed through the small intestine in about 45 minutes, resulting in a peak blood concentration of 0.25 to 2 mg/L or about 1 to 10 μM. .
Caffeine has a half-life of 3 to 7 hours in healthy adults and is metabolized primarily in the liver by the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme system (CYP1A2 isozyme) to three dimethylxanthines, including paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline, all of which are pharmacologically active. active in the human body and then secreted in the urine .
Adhd And Coffee: Decoding The Caffeine Connection
Furthermore, caffeine has been described in all body fluids, including saliva, bile, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, cord blood, and breast milk . It has been reported – in an in vivo rat model – that caffeine is present in all tissues after administration for 10 days and accumulated for 25 days. In this context, caffeine resulted in significantly higher levels and was widely distributed in the brain, liver, and kidney . Caffeine is soluble in water and lipids; therefore, it can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and, once in the brain, can act on various molecular targets to cause multiple pharmacological effects, such as antagonizing adenosine receptors, inhibiting phosphodiesterase, and blocking calcium release . In this context, it has been shown that caffeine does not alter the blood-brain barrier , thus, it does not lead to any change in brain parenchymal physiology and homeostasis. However, on the other hand, energy drinks are able to induce blood-brain barrier dysfunction, as recently demonstrated , and this side effect could explain the brain oxidative stress previously observed in rats under energy drink conditions . It is now increasingly evident that non-toxic doses of caffeine act mostly on biological tissues through antagonism of adenosine receptors, as first stated by Fredholm . Moreover, Lopes et al. pointed out that adenosine receptor antagonism is the main mechanism operated by non-toxic doses of caffeine to modulate activity in brain circuits. The same study also showed that the effect of moderate concentrations of caffeine on the control of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mouse hippocampus is selectively mediated by antagonizing adenosine receptors, where A1R and A2AR control basal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, respectively .
Several studies have highlighted the link between coffee consumption and improved health, as described by a growing number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which report that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of several chronic pathologies related to inflammatory processes, including neurodegenerative diseases. such as AD [19, 20, 21, 22]. It has been reported in some animal models that, while acute administration of caffeine exacerbates neuronal damage in experimental ischemia, low or chronic doses are able to protect the CNS from hypoxia and ischemia, thus hypothesizing that regular caffeine consumption, in small and for prolonged periods, could be helpful in preventing neurodegenerative diseases [23, 24].
This manuscript reviews recent information on the role of caffeine consumption as a nutrient-based preventive strategy for dietary supplementation to counteract oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in common neurodegenerative diseases.
Neuroinflammation is a complicated process involving the integration of immediate local inflammatory responses by all CNS cells, including neuronal cells, macroglia, and microglia. Based on this, immune cells such as macrophages, T cells and B cells are recruited throughout the body .
What Is Caffeine? Is It Good For You?
Some factors—such as genetic background, environmental factors, a possible initial insult, and age—may work together to activate the microglial cells that are so entangled in the complex neuroinflammatory pathway [26, 27]. All these variable factors can cause inflammatory reactions, which are initiated by intracellular signaling cascades shortly after cell injury and tissue damage. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, for example, causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome by activating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling .
When LPS binds TLR-4 on the surface of microglia, several signal transduction pathways are actually activated—such as PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and mTOR—which ultimately
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