What Does High Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Mean – Hematocrit (HCT) refers to the proportion of red blood cells (RBC) in an individual’s blood. Adults with XY chromosomes typically have HCT ranging from 40% to 54%, and adults with XX chromosomes have HCT ranging from 36% to 48%. In addition to red blood cells, blood also has three other main components: white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
Hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume. The hematocrit test can be performed using a capillary tube and a centrifuge (i.e. a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances in the blood due to their different densities). Typically, hematocrit levels are determined as part of a complete blood count (CBC), but they can also be tested individually. However, CBC is the most common blood test to measure HCT and also measures red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and platelets.
- 1 What Does High Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Mean
- 2 Hiv And Your Cbc (complete Blood Count)
- 3 Symptoms Of Anemia You Shouldn’t Ignore
What Does High Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Mean
Hematocrit is a very useful laboratory finding because having too few or too many red blood cells can be a clinical sign of many different medical conditions, such as anemia or polycythemia. It can also be used to monitor individuals after surgery to prevent or screen for complications, such as internal bleeding.
What Is The Function Of Red Blood Cells?
Low hematocrit levels, also known as anemia, can result from decreased red blood cell production, increased blood loss, increased red blood cell destruction, or a combination of both.
The most common cause of low hematocrit levels is chronic (eg, ulcers, colon cancer) or acute (eg, trauma, internal bleeding) bleeding, which results in significant blood loss. Notably, people of reproductive age who were identified as female at birth may have low hematocrit due to menstruation. However, hematocrit can also decrease due to peripheral destruction of red blood cells as seen in conditions such as sickle cell anemia, where red blood cells have a shorter lifespan; and splenomegaly (i.e. splenomegaly), in which large numbers of healthy red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen. Another cause of low hematocrit is decreased red blood cell production, as seen in chronic inflammatory diseases or bone marrow suppression due to radiation therapy, malignant tumors, or drugs such as chemotherapy. Finally, malnutrition (e.g., iron, B12, and folate deficiency) as well as overhydration can also lead to decreased hematocrit levels.
Dehydration, caused by dehydration from repeated vomiting, overheating, or limited access to fluids, can cause hemoconcentration. Additionally, low oxygen availability triggers the production of new blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body and can be caused by smoking; height; congenital heart disease; or certain lung disorders, such as pulmonary fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additionally, polycythemia vera, which is characterized by overproduction of red blood cells due to increased bone marrow stimulation (i.e. myeloproliferation), can cause high hematocrit levels. Similarly, increased erythropoietin production, due to androgen administration or to erythropoietin production from kidney, liver, and ovarian tumors, can also increase hematocrit. Finally, various pathologies of the endocrine system, such as Cushing’s syndrome, can also lead to high hematocrit levels.
Hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in the total blood volume. Many medical conditions and especially blood disorders can be detected by a hematocrit test. Low hematocrit levels, also known as anemia, can result from decreased red blood cell production, increased blood loss, increased red blood cell destruction, or a combination of the above factors. On the other hand, high hematocrit levels can be the result of hemoconcentration or RBC overproduction, which can be triggered by a variety of factors.
Hiv And Your Cbc (complete Blood Count)
Dixon, L. R. (1997). Complete blood count: physiological basis and clinical use. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 11(3), 1–18. DOI: 10.1097/00005237-199712000-00003
Kragh-Hansen, U. (2018). Possible mechanisms of enzymatic degradation of human serum albumin could lead to biologically active peptides and biomarkers. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 5: 63. DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2018.00063 Hemoglobin disorders are a group of genetic conditions that affect a person’s red blood cells. Red blood cells take oxygen from the lungs and deliver it to all tissues of the body. In people with hemoglobin disorders, there is a lower number of red blood cells, less ability to do work, or both.
The most common hemoglobin disorders are sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Some versions of the genes that cause these diseases also protect against malaria—a deadly parasite carried by mosquitoes. Through natural selection, these gene variations have become very common in some parts of the world.
The Hbb gene encodes the beta-globin protein. Two beta-globin molecules combine with two alpha-globin molecules to form hemoglobin. If there is a problem with the beta-globin protein, hemoglobin will not function properly and red blood cells will not be able to do their job.
Complete Blood Count, Red Blood Cell Morphology
The HBB gene, on chromosome 11, encodes the beta-globin protein. Two beta-globin molecules combine with two alpha-globin molecules to form hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin protein is the main component of red blood cells. It gives color to the blood and allows it to transport oxygen. The red color comes from heme – iron-containing molecules located in each globin protein. Heme is needed for hemoglobin to hold oxygen.
There are many different versions (alleles) of the HBB gene, each coding for a slightly different beta-globin protein. Some HBB alleles can cause genetic disorders. Each type of beta-globin disorder has its own set of symptoms, which can range from very mild to life-threatening. In all of these disorders, symptoms are related to poorly functioning hemoglobin, which prevents red blood cells from doing their job.
Too little protein. Some alleles of the HBB gene produce little or no beta-globin protein. They cause some forms of beta-thalassemia, a genetic disorder in which people have too few red blood cells.
Red Blood Cells: What Do They Do?
Altered proteins Some alleles of the HBB gene encode abnormal forms of the beta-globin protein. Depending on how the beta-globin protein is altered, alleles of this type can cause a variety of genetic disorders.
From the perspective of the protein produced, a person’s two HBB alleles are co-dominant. The beta-globin protein is made up of both alleles, and they combine randomly to create hemoglobin.
Normally, people with a healthy HBB allele make enough healthy beta-globin protein and their red blood cells can do their job. Therefore, hemoglobin disorders typically follow an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance: two inactive alleles are required to cause the disorder, one from either parent. Sickle cell disease and most forms of beta-thalassemia work this way.
However, in some cases, hemoglobin disorders follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern: just one inactive HBB allele can cause the disorder. A child can inherit the disorder directly from an affected parent. Oxygen transport disorders and some forms of beta-thalassemia work this way.
Can Anemia Affect Your Heart Health?
With some allele combinations—such as the oxygen transporter plus sickle cell allele, or the sickle cell plus beta-thalassemia allele—the symptoms of the disorder also follow a co-dominant pattern. The symptoms a person experiences are the result of the combined effects of both alleles.
Each person inherits two copies (or alleles) of the Hbb gene—one copy from each parent. Our red blood cells make proteins from both alleles and assemble them into hemoglobin. Hemoglobin molecules can include beta-globin from either allele in any combination.
Stem cells in red bone marrow divide rapidly, creating all types of blood cells. The Hbb gene is turned on in cells that will become red blood cells. As they mature, they move into the bloodstream.
Nearly all of the beta-globin in the body is found in red blood cells. Several other cell types make the protein beta-globin (and hemoglobin), including cells in the lungs, eyes, and lining of the female reproductive tract. But in these cells, beta-globin does not play a central role in their function.
Symptoms Of Anemia You Shouldn’t Ignore
Red blood cells are created from stem cells in the bone marrow, more specifically in the red bone marrow. As the cell matures, the genes encoding the globin protein are activated. The cells are filled with hemoglobin, the nucleus is pushed out of the cell, and mature red blood cells enter the blood stream.
Red blood cells live for about 3–4 months, after which they are recycled. A healthy adult produces 2–3 million red blood cells every second!
People with beta-globin disorders are born healthy. This is because before we are born, we make a different type of hemoglobin—called fetal hemoglobin—using different globin proteins instead of beta-globin. Shortly before birth, we switch to beta-globin production. These new beta-globin red blood cells gradually replace the fetal hemoglobin cells. Even in the most severe cases, it takes several months for symptoms of beta-globin disorders to develop.
Red blood cells are the largest component of blood tissue and the most abundant type of cell in the body. They perform one of the blood’s most important jobs: delivering oxygen to all of the body’s tissues.
Characterization Of Red Blood Cell Microcirculatory Parameters Using A Bioimpedance Microfluidic Device
The beta-globin protein is essential for red blood cell function. It combines with alpha-globin to create hemoglobin – the molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Without healthy beta-globin protein, red blood cells have problems and blood tissue does not function properly.
Depending on the genetic disorder and the specific HBB alleles involved, people may experience anemia (too few red blood cells), pain, organ damage, and/or low oxygen levels throughout the body. . The next section provides more details.
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