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What Are The Roles Of Bacteria In The Nitrogen Cycle

What Are The Roles Of Bacteria In The Nitrogen Cycle

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Author: Ashok Iyaswamy Ashok Iyaswamy Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, *, † , Kejia Lu Kejia Lu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, † , Xin-Jie Guan Xin-Jie Guan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Yuxuan Kan Yuxuan Kan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Chengfu Su Chengfu Su Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Jia Liu Jia Liu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Ravindran Jaganathan Ravindran Jaganathan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3 , Karthick Vasudevan Vasudevan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4 , Jeyakumari Paul Jeyakumari Paul Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 , Abhimanyu Thakur Abhimanyu Thakur Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 6, * and Min Li Min Li Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, *

Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi-Ming Parkinson’s Disease Research Center, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China

Solved Question 1 Which Of The Following Is Not A Role Of

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, Ben May Department of Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Received: June 23, 2023 / Revised: July 16, 2023 / Accepted: July 19, 2023 / Published: July 21, 2023

(This article relates to the special topic of β, Tau and α-Synuclein Aggregates in Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Therapeutics for Neurodegenerative Diseases)

What Are The Roles Of Bacteria In The Nitrogen Cycle

Extracellular vesicles (BEVs) have the ability to interact intracellularly with other cells, and thus can be used as effective cargo to deliver therapeutic substances such as monoclonal antibodies, proteins, plasmids, siRNA and small therapeutic molecules worldwide. neurodegenerative diseases (ND). BEVs also have a remarkable ability to deliver these therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review summarizes the role and progress of BEVs in ND, AD and their treatment. It also investigates BEV networks critical to the microbiome-less-brain axis, their defensive and offensive roles in NDs, and their interaction with NDs. Furthermore, the part of BEVs in the neuroimmune system and their interference with ND, as well as the risk factors caused by BEVs in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and their possible effects on ND are discussed. In conclusion, this review aims to better understand the credentials of BEVs in NDs and possibly discover new therapeutic strategies.

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Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are a group of progressive disorders that affect the central nervous system and cause gradual degeneration and death of neurons. These ND conditions include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AD International estimates that 50 million people worldwide are affected by dementia alone [1]. As a result, NDs pose a great threat to public health and a great burden to society [1, 2]. Despite great efforts to develop treatments, there is currently no specific cure for ND [3].

Researchers have begun to investigate the role of bacterial vesicles (BEV) in the pathogenesis of ND in recent years [ 4 , 5 ]. BEVs are typically 50–200 nm in diameter and consist of a lipid bilayer containing numerous proteins and nucleic acids (Figure 1). The burden of BEVs can vary depending on the bacterial species and growth conditions. They are similar to extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotic cells, but with a different set of cargo molecules. Major EVs include exosomes and microvesicles, which have also been extensively studied as theranostic agents and have been found to play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological conditions [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. BEVs are thought to play a role in bacterial communication, pathogenesis, and immunity. The biogenesis of BEVs is different from the biogenesis of exosomes and microvesicles [4, 5]. BEVs are formed by the budding of vesicles from the bacterial outer membrane. Exosomes are produced by the budding of multibody vesicles (MVBs) in eukaryotic cells. Microvesicles are produced by direct shedding of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells [9]. BEVs have been found to play a key role in bacterial communication, adaptation and virulence [ 10 ]. In addition, recent studies indicate that BEVs may also add to the development and progression of ND, potentially presenting new therapeutic targets [ 5 , 10 ].

The potential function of BEVs in NDs has been the subject of intensive research in recent years [11]. According to studies, BEVs can perform offensive and defensive functions in the context of NDs, including the regulation of immune responses, modulation of the microbiome-brain axis, and induction of autophagy-lysosome pathway dysfunction [5, 11, 12], 1. as seen in the picture. In addition, recent advances in BEV isolation, characterization, and engineering have paved the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies [ 4 , 12 ].

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current literature on the role of BEVs in NDs and to investigate recent developments in the field of BEV therapeutics. We used different biomedical literature databases, such as PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library and Scopus, and searched for the following keywords: Neurodegeneration, Autophagy, Alzheimer’s disease, Nanocarriers, Extracellular vesicles, Exosomes, Therapeutics, NDs, ALP inducers, Parkinson’s disease, Brain delivery and BEVs. Specifically, this analysis aims to focus on the offensive and defensive functions of BEVs in ND pathogenesis. It also addresses critical BEV networks in the microbiome-less brain axis and their role in ND. It examines the roles of BEVs in the neuroimmune system and their interaction with NDs. It aims to analyze the risk factors of BEVs in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and their possible effects on ND. It highlights the potential uses of BEVs in the development of new drugs for ND. Future research perspectives suggest the role of BEVs in ND. This review aims to contribute to a better understanding of the potential role of BEVs in NDs and identify new therapeutic strategies for intervention.

How Bacteria Respond To Material Stiffness During Attachment: A Role Of Escherichia Coli Flagellar Motility

Recent studies have shown that BEVs [13] can induce neuroinflammation and affect neuronal function [14], which indicates the potential neurotoxicity of these particles in the context of ND [14, 15]. BEVs tend to deliver inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to microglia and astrocytes with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, and proteins [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. AD, PD, and MS, among others, have been linked to the activation of neuroinflammatory pathways [ 15 , 18 ].

BEVs originating from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found in a recent study to induce inflammation and death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra [ 14 , 15 , 19 ]. Inflammation and death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are two hallmarks of PD [14, 18]. BEV produced from Escherichia coli was found to induce neuronal death and memory impairment in an AD mouse model [ 18 , 19 ]. By inducing neuroinflammation and impairing neuronal function, BEVs may contribute to the pathogenesis of ND, according to these findings [ 19 , 20 ].

In addition to potential neurotoxicity [ 20 ], BEVs have been shown to play a protective role in NDs [ 20 ]. Several studies have shown, for example, that BEVs can have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects [ 20 , 21 ]. Specifically, intestinal bacterial BEVs have been shown to improve cognitive function and reduce neuroinflammation in mouse models of ND [ 21 , 22 ]. These results suggest that BEVs may also have therapeutic applications in the treatment of NDs [ 21 , 22 ]. The neurotoxicity of BEVs requires caution when using them as therapeutics, but their neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties offer opportunities for the development of new treatments for NDs [ 13 , 21 ]. To fully understand the mechanisms underlying the offensive and defensive roles of BEVs in NDs, additional studies are needed [ 13 , 20 ].

What Are The Roles Of Bacteria In The Nitrogen Cycle

Recent studies suggest that BEVs may also play a defensive role in NDs due to their neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties [ 20 , 21 ]. Several studies have shown, for example, that BEVs derived from specific bacterial strains can improve neuronal survival and function in ND [ 22 ]. In a mouse model of AD, Haney et al. [23] found that

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