What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

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What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

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Plasma, the liquid portion of blood. Plasma serves as a transport medium to deliver nutrients to the cells of the body’s various organs and to transport waste products derived from cellular metabolism to the kidneys, liver and lungs for excretion. It is also a transport system for blood cells and plays a key role in maintaining normal blood pressure. Plasma helps distribute heat throughout the body and maintain homeostasis, or biological stability, including acid-base balance in the blood and body.

Plasma is derived when all blood cells (red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes) are separated from whole blood. The remaining straw-colored fluid is 90-92 percent water, but contains solutes critical components needed to maintain health and life. Important components include electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, magnesium, and calcium. In addition, there are traces of other substances, including amino acids, vitamins, organic acids, pigments, and enzymes. Hormones such as insulin, corticosteroids, and thyroxine are secreted into the blood by the endocrine system Plasma hormone concentrations must be carefully regulated for good health Nitrogenous wastes (eg, urea and creatinine) transported to the kidney for excretion are markedly increased with renal failure .

Plasma contains 6-8 percent protein. A critical group are the coagulation proteins and their inhibitors, synthesized mainly in the liver. When blood clotting is activated, fibrinogen circulating in the blood is converted to fibrin, which in turn helps form a stable blood clot at the site of the vascular disruption. Clotting inhibitory proteins help prevent abnormal clotting (hypercoagulability) and dissolve clots after they form. When plasma clots, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, trapping the cellular elements of the blood. The resulting liquid, devoid of cells and fibrinogen, is called serum. Plasma and serum biochemical tests are an important part of modern clinical diagnosis and treatment monitoring. High or low plasma or serum glucose concentrations help confirm serious disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Substances secreted into the plasma by cancers may indicate an occult malignancy; for example, an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in an asymptomatic middle-aged man may indicate undiagnosed prostate cancer.

Serum albumin, another protein synthesized by the liver, constitutes approximately 60 percent of all plasma proteins. It is very important to maintain the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels; it is also an important transporter protein for various substances, including hormones. Other proteins called alpha and beta globulins carry lipids such as cholesterol as well as steroid hormones, sugar and iron.

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Gamma globulins, or immunoglobulins, are an important class of proteins that are secreted by B lymphocytes of the immune system. They include most of the body’s supply of protective antibodies produced in response to specific viral or bacterial antigens. Cytokines are proteins synthesized by cells in various organs and by cells of the immune system and bone marrow to maintain normal blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) and regulate inflammation. For example, a cytokine called erythropoietin, synthesized by specialized kidney cells, stimulates blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Other cytokines stimulate the production of white blood cells and platelets. Another protein system in plasma, called complement, is important in mediating appropriate immune and inflammatory responses to a variety of infectious agents.

Electrolytes and the acid-base system found in plasma are finely regulated. For example, potassium is normally present in plasma at a concentration of only 4 milliequivalents per liter. A slight increase in plasma potassium (up to 6-7 milliequivalents per liter) can lead to death. Likewise, plasma sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium levels must be maintained precisely within a narrow range. Smaller molecules such as sodium, potassium, glucose, and calcium are primarily responsible for the concentration of dissolved particles in plasma. However, it is the concentration of much larger proteins (especially albumin) on either side of semipermeable membranes, such as the endothelial cells that line capillaries, that creates the crucial pressure gradients needed to maintain the correct amount of water within the intravascular compartment and therefore to regulate the volume of circulating blood. Thus, for example, patients who have renal dysfunction or low plasma protein concentrations (especially low albumin) may develop a migration of water from the vascular space into the tissue spaces, causing edema (swelling) and congestion in the extremities and organs vital organs, including the lungs. One of the fundamental functions of is transport. ships are like road networks where waste is delivered and removed. Oxygen, nutrients and hormones are delivered throughout the body and carbon dioxide and other waste products are removed.

When we breathe in, the millions of air sacs in the lungs fill with fresh, oxygenated air. The oxygen then moves inside by first passing through the very thin walls of the air sacs and then into the capillaries, which are tiny vessels in a network inside the lungs.

What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

Red blood cells pass through narrow capillaries in a single file. Hemoglobin molecules inside red blood cells pick up and transport oxygen. These oxygen-rich cells travel in vessels from the lungs to the left side of the heart. Then pump around the body.

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Red blood cells are adapted for oxygen transport. They are small and flexible so they can fit into narrow vessels, have a biconcave shape that maximizes their surface area to absorb oxygen, have a thin membrane so gases diffuse easily, and contain hemoglobin that binds to oxygen.

It’s the millions of hemoglobin proteins that contain iron that make it red. Molecules with more oxygen attached to them are brighter red.

When red blood cells reach tissues that need oxygen, the oxygen is released from hemoglobin and diffuses into the cells where it is used to produce energy.

All systems in our body depend on oxygen to produce energy. If we didn’t move the oxygen we breathe to our organs and tissues, we wouldn’t be able to carry out normal functions like moving muscles, digesting food, or thinking. keep us alive

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At the same time, the red blood cells will pick up the waste carbon dioxide that has been released from the cells and entered the flow. Red blood cells that carry less oxygen have a duller red color, so the deoxygenated ones in our veins are darker than the oxygenated ones.

The red blood cells then travel within the veins back to the right side of the heart. From the heart it is returned to the lungs where carbon dioxide is released into the air sacs to be exhaled. Air is inhaled, oxygen is collected and the journey begins again.

Digested nutrients are absorbed by the passing capillaries of the small intestine. They are then transported to the body’s cells where they are needed.

What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

Vessels close to the cells have a small diameter, so the cells flow more slowly, allowing the cells to absorb nutrients and exchange waste products in which they are eliminated.

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The waste products are transported to the organs that remove them from the body and are then removed from the body. For example, excess water is filtered by the kidneys and toxins are removed by the liver.

The movement of hormones through the body allows communication between organs. Hormones help control many processes in our bodies, including growth, development, mood, metabolism, reproduction, and the functioning of our organs.

Hormones are secreted by glands and then carried to their target organs where they exert their effects. They carry instructions to cells throughout the body. Once hormones reach a target cell they bind to receptors inside or outside the cell.

By traveling in the , hormones can affect tissues and organs far from where they were produced or have effects throughout the body.

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The body has 60,000 miles of vessels. This is long enough to go around the globe more than twice.

It takes less than a minute for a red blood cell to move from the heart, through the body, and back to the heart.

Another important function is protection. White blood cells help fight infection and disease. Learn more about the role of the immune response in the spring edition of The Donor.

What Are The Functions Of Red And White Blood Cells

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