What Are Functions Of The Nervous System – Illuminate the complex pathways of the nervous system with our definitive guide. Nursing students, unlock the secrets of the tangled web that dictates our every thought, action, and feeling.
The nervous system does not work alone to regulate and maintain the body’s homeostasis; the endocrine system is the second important regulatory system.
- 1 What Are Functions Of The Nervous System
- 2 Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System
- 3 Somatic Nervous System
- 4 Peripheral Nervous System (pns): What It Is & Function
What Are Functions Of The Nervous System
We only have one nervous system, but because of its complexity it is difficult to consider all its parts at once; therefore, to simplify its study, we divide it in terms of its structures (structural classification) or in terms of its activities (functional classification).
Structure And Function Of The Nervous System
The structural classification, which includes all organs of the nervous system, has two divisions – the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Although nervous tissue is complex, it is made up of only two main types of cells – supporting cells and neurons.
Neurons, also called nerve cells, are highly specialized for transmitting messages (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another.
During embryonic development, the CNS is initially a simple tube, a neural tube that extends down the dorsal midplane of the body of the developing embryo.
Function Of The Nervous System (review Video)
Because the brain is the largest and most complex mass of nervous tissue in the body, it is usually viewed in terms of its four main regions—the cerebral hemispheres, the diencephalon, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.
The paired cerebral hemispheres, together called the cerebrum, are the highest part of the brain, and together they are much larger than the other three brain regions combined.
Nervous tissue is very soft and fragile, and irreplaceable neurons are damaged by even the slightest pressure, so nature tried to protect the brain and spinal cord by enclosing them in bones (skull and spinal column), membranes (meninges). ), and a watery cushion (cerebrospinal fluid).
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a watery “broth” similar in composition to blood plasma, from which it is formed.
Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System
No other organ in the body is as completely dependent on a constant internal environment as the brain, so the blood-brain barrier protects it.
The white matter of the spinal cord is made up of myelinated fibers – some go to higher centers, some go from the brain to the brain, and some conduct impulses from one side of the spinal cord to the other.
The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves and disparate groups of neuron cells (ganglia) located outside the CNS.
The 31 pairs of human spinal nerves are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord.
Advanced Digital Networks Look A Lot Like The Human Nervous System
The sympathetic division mobilizes the body in extreme situations and is also called thoracolumbar because its preganglionic neurons are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord from T1 to L2.
Neurons have two main functional properties: excitability, the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse, and conduction, the ability to transmit an impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
The parasympathetic system is most active when the body is at rest and not in danger.
Mariana leads a double life: she works as a nurse during the day and works as a writer at night. As an ambulatory care nurse, she honed her skills in health care nursing education, making her a valuable resource and author of educational guides for new nurses.
What Is The Sympathetic Nervous System
Buffer Copy Email Facebook Flipboard Hacker News Line LinkedIn Messenger Mix Pinterest Pocket Print Reddit SMS Telegram Tumblr X VK WhatsApp Xing Yummly1) Central Nervous System (CNS) – consists of the brain and spinal cord. Functions of integration and correlation of sensory information; gives rise to thoughts, perceptions and emotions; forms and stores memory; regulates most of the body’s physiology and movement
2) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – consists of spinal nerves, cranial nerves and ganglia. Functions of the transmission of messages to and from the spinal cord and brain
Nerve fiber is a general term for any nerve process. A nerve is a bundle of many nerve fibers on one path in the PNS, surrounded by a layer of connective tissue. Ganglia – a cluster of nerve cell bodies in the PNS. The nucleus is a mass of cell bodies and dendrites in the CNS tract – a bundle of nerve fibers along one path in the CNS without a layer of connective tissue. White matter – aggregations of myelinated processes from many neurons. Gray matter – contains either neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals, or unmyelinated axons and neuroglia
1. Afferent – transmit sensory impulses from the PNS to the CNS. – Sensory afferent fibers – carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles and joints – Visceral afferent fibers – carry impulses from visceral organs 2. Efferent – carry motor impulses from the CNS to the PNS – Somatic nervous system – provides conscious control of skeletal muscles – Autonomic nervous system – regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
Smart Ways To Keep Your Central Nervous System Healthy
3. Association neurons or interneurons All other neurons are called association neurons or interneurons, responsible for integrating afferent information and formulating an efferent response that includes higher cognitive functions
There are four types of neuroglia found in the CNS: 1. Astrocytes – star-shaped with many processes, participate in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, maintain proper K+ balance, help form the blood-brain barrier, and provide communication between neurons and blood vessels. 2. Oligodendrocytes – fewer processes and fewer astrocytes, the most common type in the CNS, they are involved in myelination. 3. Microglia are small cells that originate from monocytes, which perform the function of macrophages and carry out phagocytosis. 4. Ependyma – epithelial cells from columnar to flat, often ciliated, that form a shell in the ventricles (fluid-filled cavities of the brain).
Functions of CSF: – Cushions the environment – Provides an optimal and stable environment for the generation of nerve impulses – Provides an environment for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and nervous tissue.
CSF Production The vascular plexus is a network of blood capillaries in the walls of the ventricles. Capillaries are lined with ependymal cells that produce CSF. Ependymal cells form a fluid-tight barrier around capillaries called the blood-brain barrier
Central Nervous System (cns)
Click here to see an animation that summarizes the main areas of the brain and the functions of each area.
Cerebral cortex – (gray matter “computer”) Each half of the cerebral cortex is divided into four main pairs of lobes. Occipital lobes – perform the initial processing of visual information. The temporal lobes are the primary source of sound perception. Parietal lobes – responsible for somatosensory processing. for – voluntary motor activity – speech ability – thought production The outer layer of the cerebrum contains the soma or cell bodies of neurons. Surface features of the cerebral cortex include convolutions (ridges), sulci (grooves), and fissures (deep sulci). Fissures increase the surface area and divide the brain into four main pairs of lobes
Primary somatosensory cortex Located in the rack of the central gyrus (immediately posterior to the central sulcus) of each parietal lobe. Receives information from somatic sensory receptors for proprioception, touch, pain, temperature. The main function is to locate the exact places where sensations arise. Sensory homunculus – shows the proportional distribution of sensory input to the somatosensory cortex from different parts of the body depending on the degree of sensory perception
Primary motor cortex of the brain Located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. Controls voluntary contractions of certain muscles or muscle groups. The size of the area and the number of neurons representing each body part are proportional to the precision and complexity of that part’s movement
Somatic Nervous System
Understanding and translating thought into speech involves sensory, associative, and motor speech areas located in the frontal lobe. Broca’s area – speech formation, speech ability Wernicke’s area – language comprehension
Primary visual cortex Medial surface of the occipital lobe Receives information from the thalamus (lateral geniculate nuclei) regarding shape, color, and movement. The primary auditory cortex is located in the upper part of the temporal lobe. Interprets the characteristics of sound, hearing. The main gustatory area is located at the base of the central gyrus in the parietal lobe Receives impulses for taste Primary olfactory area Located in the medial part of the temporal lobe Receives impulses for smell Supplementary motor area Plays a preparatory role in programming complex sequences of movements Premotor cortex Orients the body and hands to a specific target Engages in learning motor activity of a complex and sequential nature. Association areas are tracts that connect motor and sensory areas and large parts of the cortex Prefrontal Association Cortex Involved in planning voluntary activities, decision making, creativity, personality traits Parietotemporal-occipital Association Cortex Integrates and integrates somatic, auditory and visual sensations for complex perceptual processing Also involved in language Limbic association cortex Involved in motivation and emotion, associated with memory Cortical integration Sensory input >> somatosensory cortex >> higher sensory areas >> association areas >> higher motor area > > primary motor cortex >> motor output
Addiction is a decrease in the response to a stimulus, the closing of Ca channels leads to a decrease in the release of neurotransmitters. Sensitization – increase response, release of serotonin from interneuron > increase in cAMP in presynaptic neuron, which blocks K channels > prolongs AP, so Ca channels are open longer, increasing neurotransmitter output
It starts with the release of glutamate
Peripheral Nervous System (pns): What It Is & Function
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