Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System – Now that we’ve looked at how individual neurons work and the roles of different brain regions, it’s time to ask how the body manages to put it all together. How do the complex actions in different parts of the brain, the simple all-or-nothing impulses of billions of interconnected neurons, and the various chemical systems within the body work together to allow the body to respond to the social environment and engage in everyday behavior? In this section we will see that the complexities of human behavior are accomplished through the combined action of electrical and chemical processes in the nervous and endocrine systems.

The nervous system (see Fig. 4.16 “Functional Divisions of the Nervous System”), the electrical information highway of the body, consists of nerves –

Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System

Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System

Consists of the brain and spinal cord, is the main controller of body functions, responsible for interpreting and responding to sensory information.

Solution: Nervous System Ppt Student Presentation

With your directives. The CNS interprets the information coming from the senses, formulates the appropriate response, and sends responses to the appropriate system to respond appropriately. Everything we see, hear, smell, touch and taste is transmitted to us from our senses in the form of nerve impulses, and each of the commands that the brain sends to the body, both consciously and unconsciously, also passes through this system.

. The interneuron, which is by far the most common type of neuron, is located primarily in the central nervous system and is

. Interneurons allow the brain to combine multiple sources of available information to create a holistic picture of the sensory information being transmitted.

. This is the central channel for transmitting information for the body. In the spinal cord, the ascending tracts of sensory neurons carry sensory information from the senses to the brain, and the descending tracts of motor neurons relay motor commands back to the body. When a faster-than-normal response is required, the spinal cord can do its own processing, bypassing the brain entirely. Reflex is

Peripheral Nervous System: What It Is And How It Works

. Reflexes are triggered when sensory information is strong enough to reach a given threshold, and interneurons in the spinal cord send the message back through the motor neurons without transmitting the information to the brain (see Figure 4.17, “Reflex”). When you touch a hot stove and immediately jerk your hand away, or when you drop your cell phone and instinctively reach out to catch it before it falls, reflexes in the spinal cord order the appropriate responses even before your brain knows what’s happening. .

Figure 4.17. Reflex. The central nervous system can interpret signals from sensory neurons and respond extremely quickly through motor neurons without any involvement from the brain. These quick reactions, known as reflexes, can reduce the damage we might suffer from touching a hot stove, for example.

. As you can see in Figure 4.18, “The Autonomic Nervous System,” the peripheral nervous system itself is divided into two subsystems: one that controls internal responses and the other that controls external responses.

Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System

The division of the PNS that controls the internal activities of the human body, including heart rate, breathing, digestion, salivation, sweating, urination, and sexual arousal.

Nervous System Reset

. Many ANS actions, such as heart rate and digestion, are automatic and outside our conscious control, but others, such as breathing and sexual activity, can be controlled and influenced by conscious processes.

, including skeletal muscles, skin and sensory organs. The somatic nervous system consists primarily of motor nerves, which are responsible for sending signals to the brain for muscle contraction.

Participates in preparing the body for behavior, especially in response to stress, by activating the organs and glands of the endocrine system.

Tends to calm the body by slowing the heart rate and breathing and allowing the body to recover from the activity caused by the sympathetic system.

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. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions usually function in opposition to each other, with the sympathetic division acting like the accelerator pedal in a car and the parasympathetic division acting like the brake.

Figure 4.18. Autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system consists of two divisions: The sympathetic division supplies the body with energy and prepares it for action. The parasympathetic department calms the body, allowing it to rest. [Long description]

Our daily activities are controlled by the interaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. For example, when we get out of bed in the morning, we would feel a sharp drop in blood pressure if it were not for the action of the sympathetic system, which automatically increases blood flow throughout the body. Likewise, after we eat a large meal, the parasympathetic system automatically sends more blood to the stomach and intestines, allowing us to digest food efficiently. And perhaps you’ve had the experience of not feeling hungry at all before a stressful event, such as a sports game or exam (when the sympathetic part of the body was in charge), but suddenly finding yourself hungry afterward when the parasympathetic part takes over. self control. . Both systems work together to maintain vital body functions, resulting in homeostasis.

Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System

The nervous system is designed to protect us from danger by interpreting and responding to stimuli. But the main function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system is to interact with the endocrine system.

The Nervous System: Facts, Function And Diseases

. When hormones released by one gland reach receptor tissues or other glands, those receiving receptors can trigger the release of other hormones, resulting in a series of complex chemical chain reactions. The endocrine system works together with the nervous system to influence many aspects of human behavior, including growth, reproduction and metabolism. The endocrine system plays a vital role in emotions. Because the glands are different in men and women, hormones also help explain some of the observed differences in behavior between men and women. The major glands of the endocrine system are shown in Figure 4.19 “Major Glands of the Endocrine System.”

Figure 4.19. The main glands of the endocrine system. The male is shown on the left and the female on the right.

A small, pea-sized gland located near the center of the brain is responsible for controlling body growth.

, but it also has many other influences that make it paramount for the regulation of behavior. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that influence our response to pain, as well as hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women. Because the pituitary gland has such important influence on other glands, it is sometimes called the “master gland.”

Divisions Of The Brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle; as well as the thyroid and parathyroid glands, which are responsible for

Determining how quickly the body uses energy and hormones, and monitoring the amount of calcium in the blood and bones.

Produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body, and are also involved in metabolism, the immune system, sexual development and functioning.

Two Major Divisions Of The Nervous System

) when we are excited, threatened or stressed. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate the sympathetic division of the ANS, causing increased activity of the heart and lungs, dilation of the pupils and increase in blood sugar levels, which gives the body a surge of energy to respond to threats. The activity and role of the adrenal glands in response to stress provides an excellent example of the close connection and interdependence of the nervous and endocrine systems. A fast-acting nervous system is needed to immediately activate the adrenal glands, and the endocrine system mobilizes the body into action.

Anatomy And Physiology Nervous System

. Testosterone regulates body changes associated with sexual development, including penis enlargement, deepening of the voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, and increased muscle growth and strength. Ovaries,

Including breast growth, fat accumulation around the hips and thighs, and the growth spurt that occurs during puberty. Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

Recent research has revealed some important roles of sex hormones in social behavior. Dabbs, Hargrove, and Heusel (1996) measured testosterone levels in 240 men who were members of 12 fraternities at two universities. They also obtained descriptions of fraternities from university officials, fraternity officers, photographs from yearbooks and chapter houses, and field notes from researchers. The researchers compared testosterone levels and descriptions of each fraternity. They found that the fraternities with the highest average testosterone levels were also the more wild and unruly, and one of these fraternities was known throughout campus for its rough behavior. On the other hand, fraternities with the lowest average testosterone levels were more well-mannered, friendly and likable, academically successful, and socially responsible. Banks and Dabbs (1996) found that juvenile offenders and prisoners with high levels of testosterone also acted more aggressively, and Tremblay et al (1998) found that testosterone was associated with toughness and leadership behavior in adolescent boys. Although testosterone levels are higher in men than in women, the link between testosterone and aggression is clear.

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