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The Main Function Of Red Blood Cells

The Main Function Of Red Blood Cells

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Dr. Shumaila Asim Lecture # 4

Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, the cellular element of the blood, millions of which in the circulation of vertebrates give the blood its characteristic color and carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. The cell of the mature red blood of man is small, round, biconcave; Dumbbell-shaped appears in profile. The cell is flexible and takes on a bell shape as it passes through the tiny blood vessels. It is covered by a membrane of lipids and proteins, lacks a nucleus, and contains hemoglobin, a red iron-rich protein that binds oxygen.

Notice how the red blood cells travel from the heart to the lungs and other tissues of the body to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The role of the red cell and its hemoglobin is to transport oxygen from the lungs or gills to all the tissues of the body and carbon dioxide, a product of water metabolism, to the lungs, where it is excreted. In invertebrates, the oxygen-carrying pigment is carried free in the plasma; its concentration in red cells in vertebrates, as oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are exchanged, is more efficient and represents an important evolutionary step. The mammalian red cell is still adapted to lack a nucleus – the amount of oxygen required by the cell for its metabolism is thus very low, and most of the iron can be delivered to the tissues. The biconcave shape of the cell allows oxygen exchange at a constant rate over the largest possible surface area.

The red cell in the bone marrow develops in several stages: the hemocytoblast, a multipotential cell in the mesenchyme, becomes the erythroblast (normoblast); during two to five days of development, the erythroblast gradually fills with hemoglobin, and its nucleus and mitochondria (particles of cytoplasm that provide the cell’s energy) disappear. In the advanced stage, the cell is called a reticulocyte, which eventually becomes a fully mature red cell. The average red cell in humans lives for 100-120 days; There are about 5.2 million red cells per cubic millimeter of blood in an adult human.

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Although red cells are usually round, a small proportion are oval in a normal person, and in some hereditary states a larger proportion may be oval. Some diseases also present red cells with an abnormal shape, oval in pernicious anemia, lunate in sickle cell anemia, and with a spiny projection presenting an appearance in the hereditary disorder acanthocytosis. The number of red cells and the amount of hemoglobin vary among different people and under different conditions; the number is higher, for example, in those who live at high altitudes and in polycythemia disease. In the birth of the red count is a lofty cell; it falls shortly after birth and gradually rises to adulthood. An erythrocyte, commonly known as a red blood cell (or RBC), is by far the most common element formed: One drop of blood contains only a million erythrocytes. thousands of leukocytes (Figure 18.3.1). Specifically, males have about 5.4 million erythrocytes per microliter (

L. In fact, erythrocytes are estimated to make up about 25 percent of the total cells in the body. The cells are small, with an average diameter of 7-8 micrometers (.

M). The primary function of erythrocytes is to collect oxygen from the lungs and transport it to the tissues of the body, and to collect carbon dioxide from the tissues and transport it to the lungs. Although leukocytes typically leave the blood vessels to perform their defensive functions, the movement of erythrocytes from the blood vessels is abnormal.

The Main Function Of Red Blood Cells

When an erythrocyte matures in the red bone marrow, it extrudes its nucleus and most other organs. During the first day or two of being in circulation, immature erythrocytes, known as reticulocytes, will typically still contain remnant organelles. Reticulocytes comprise about 1-2 percent of the erythrocyte count and provide a rough estimate of the amount of RBC production. Extremely low or high levels of reticulocytes indicate errors in the production of these erythrocytes. These complex residues are rapidly diffused, so circulating erythrocytes have few components of the internal cellular structure. They lack endoplasmic reticulum and do not synthesize proteins.

Metaphor Function Of Red Blood Cell To Transport Oxygen To Body Stock Vector

The function of erythrocytes to transport blood gases is characterized by their structure, such as the lack of organelles, especially mitochondria, biconavia shape, and the presence of a flexible cytoskeletal protein called spectrin. Since erythrocytes lack mitochondria and must rely on anaerobic metabolism, they use no oxygen as transport while delivering to tissues. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs; this is fat in its periphery and thin in the center (Figure 18.3.2). Since most organelles are lacking, there is an interior space for the presence of hemoglobin molecules which, as you will soon see, transport gases. The biconcave shape also provides a greater surface area through which gas exchange can take place, relative to its volume; A sphere of similar diameter would have a lower surface area-to-volume ratio. In the capillaries, pain carried by erythrocytes can diffuse into the plasma and then pass through the capillary walls to the cells, while some of the carbon dioxide produced by the cells diffuses into the capillary as a waste product. erythrocytes The capillary beds are very narrow, delaying the passage of erythrocytes and providing an extended opportunity for gas exchange to occur. However, the space within the capillary can be so small that, despite its small size, the erythrocytes travel in individual bundles and sometimes cross over into each other. Fortunately, their films, like spectres, are flexible enough to allow them to be folded and re-created in a wider container.

Figure 18.3.2 – Shape of a red blood cell: Erythrocytes are biconcave discs with very shallow centers. This shape optimizes the surface-to-volume ratio, making gas exchange easier. It also causes them to fold through narrow veins.

Hemoglobin is a large molecule made of protein and iron. It consists of four folded protein globular links, designated alpha 1 and 2, and beta 1 and 2 (Figure 18.3.3a). Each of these globin molecules is bound to a red pigment molecule called heme, which contains an iron ion (Fe.

Figure 18.3.3 – Hemoglobin: (a) The hemoglobin molecule contains four globin proteins, each of which is bound to a molecule of iron-containing glue. (b) One erythrocyte can contain three hundred million hemoglobin molecules, and thus more than 1 billion moles of oxygen.

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Each iron ion in heme can bind to one molecule of oxygen, so each hemoglobin molecule can transfer four molecules of oxygen. Each erythrocyte can contain about 300 million hemoglobin molecules, and can attach and transport up to 1.2 billion oxygen molecules.

In the lungs, hemoglobin picks up oxygen, which binds to iron bonds, forming oxyhemoglobin. The red, oxygenated hemoglobin travels to the capillary tissues of the body, where it releases some of the oxygen, which becomes a darker red deoxyhemoglobin. The release of oxygen depends on the need for oxygen in the surrounding tissues, so hemoglobin rarely gives up all of its oxygen. In time, the dioxide itself (CO

Is the bicarbonate ion. About 23-24 percent of it binds to amino acids in hemoglobin, forming a molecule known as carbaminohemoglobin. From the capillaries, hemoglobin carries CO .

The Main Function Of Red Blood Cells

Changes in the levels of RBCs can have significant effects on the body’s ability to effectively deliver oxygen to tissues. Overproduction of RBCs causes a condition called polycythemia. The main problem with polycythemia is not the failure to deliver enough oxygen to the tissues, but the increased viscosity of the blood, which makes it more difficult for the heart to circulate blood. Inefficient hematopoiesis results in insufficient numbers of RBCs and results in one of several forms of anemia. In patients with insufficient hemoglobin, the tissues cannot receive sufficient oxygen, resulting in another type of anemia.

Hemoglobin And Functions Of Iron

In determining the oxygenation of the tissues, the value of greatest interest in health is the percent saturation; that is, the percentage of hemoglobin sites occupied by oxygen in the patient’s blood. This value is commonly referred to simply as “seated”. Percent saturation is regularly monitored using a device known as a pulse oximeter, which is worn on a thin part of the body, typically the tip of the patient’s finger. The device works by sending two wavelengths of light (one red, one infrared) through the finger

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