The Function Of Kidney In Human Body

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The Function Of Kidney In Human Body

The Function Of Kidney In Human Body

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What Is The Function Of The Kidneys In The Human Body?

Kidney, in vertebrates and some invertebrates, an organ that maintains water balance and eliminates metabolic waste. Primitive and embryonic kidneys consist of two series of specialized tubules that empty into two collecting ducts, the Wolffian ducts (

Wolffian duct). The most advanced kidney (metakidney) of adult reptiles, birds, and mammals is a paired compact organ whose functional units, called nephrons, filter initial urine from the blood, reabsorb water and nutrients, and excrete waste, producing final urine. expelled.

The kidneys of reptiles and birds consist of many tiny lobes which, in birds, combine into three or more lobes. The collection of tubules from each lobe empties into a separate branch of the ureter. Reptiles have relatively few nephrons (from 3,000 to 30,000 in lizards), while birds have a large number (about 200,000 in a bird, twice as many as in a similarly sized mammal).

Mammalian kidneys have a somewhat granular outer portion (the cortex), which contains the glomeruli and convoluted tubules, and a smooth, somewhat striated inner portion (the medulla), which contains the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules. As the ureter enters the kidney it widens into a cavity, the renal pelvis. urine passes into this basin from the collecting tubules. Nephrons are numerous (20,000 in a mouse).

The Structure And Function Of The Kidneys

In humans, the kidneys are about 10 centimeters long and are located below the diaphragm and behind the peritoneum. Each kidney contains 1,000,000–1,250,000 nephrons that filter the entire water content of five liters of blood every 45 minutes – equivalent to 160 liters per day. Of this, only 1 1/2 liters are excreted. the rest is reabsorbed by the nephrons.

Damaged kidneys secrete an enzyme called renin that stimulates blood vessels to constrict. When the damage is initially caused by high blood pressure, the increase in pressure from the constricted vessels causes more kidney damage. Two bean-shaped organs, the kidneys are each about the size of a fist. One is on either side of your spine, just below the ribcage. About half a cup of blood is filtered by healthy kidneys every minute, with the extra water and waste products leaving the body through urine.

Two thin muscular tubes known as ureters, one on each side of your bladder, carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Your bladder collects and stores your urine. The kidneys, ureters and bladder make up the urinary system.

The Function Of Kidney In Human Body

The kidney is the most important organ for regulating metabolic waste and balancing the PH of our blood. consists of several parts each of which performs a specific function consisting of particles, tubules, pyramids, collecting ducts, calyxes, etc.

Scientists Say: Kidney

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Kidneys: Facts, Function & Diseases

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The paired kidneys are located on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat and ribs. The left kidney is located approximately at vertebrae T12 to L3, while the right kidney is lower due to slight displacement from the liver. The upper parts of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs (Figure 25.1.1). Each kidney weighs approximately 125–175 g in males and 115–155 g in females. They are about 11–14 cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick and are directly covered by a fibrous capsule consisting of dense, irregular connective tissue that helps maintain their shape and protect them. This capsule is covered by a layer of shock-absorbing fatty tissue called renal fat, which is in turn enclosed by a tough renal fascia. The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a retroperitoneal position.

The Function Of Kidney In Human Body

Figure 25.1.1 – Kidneys: The kidneys are slightly shielded by the sides and surrounded by fat for protection. On the superior surface of each kidney is an adrenal gland.

Kidney Cancer Stages, Treatment By Stage & Survival Rate

Each kidney looks like a bean, and the renal rim is the entry and exit point for the structures that serve the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing chyles are located in the convex recess of the kidney.

A frontal section through the kidney reveals an outer region called the renal cortex and an inner region called the renal medulla (Figure 25.1.2). In the medulla, 5-8 renal pyramids are separated by renal columns of connective tissue. Each pyramid creates urine and terminates in a renal papilla. Each renal papilla drains into a collection tank called the calyx minor. several secondary calyxes join to form a main calyx. all the major calyces are connected to the single renal pelvis which is connected to the ureter.

The kidneys are well vascularized and receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output at rest. Blood enters the kidney through the paired renal arteries that are formed directly from the descending aorta and each enter the kidney at the renal rim. Upon entering the kidney, each renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobular arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex (Figure 25.1.3). The interlobular arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, radiating cortical arteries, and then into afferent arterioles. Afferent arterioles deliver blood to a modified capillary layer called a glomerulus, which is a component of the kidney’s “functional unit” called a nephron. There are about 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney and they work to filter the blood. Once the nephrons filter the blood, the renal veins return the blood directly to the inferior vena cava. A portal system is formed when blood flows from the glomerulus to the efferent arteriole through a second capillary bed, the peritubular capillaries (and the vas rectus), which surround the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle. Most of the water and solutes are recovered from this second capillary bed. This filtrate is processed and finally collected by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form major calyces. the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally to the ureters.

As noted earlier, the structure of the kidney is divided into two main regions – the peripheral rim of the cortex and the central medulla. The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output. They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by the renal fat and the overlying ribs and muscles. The ureters, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit the renal hilum. The renal arteries arise directly from the aorta and the renal veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Kidney function comes from the actions of approximately 1.3 million nephrons per kidney. These are the ‘functional units’. A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters the blood and the filtrate is trapped by Bowman’s capsule. A portal system is formed when blood flows through a second capillary bed that surrounds the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle. Most of the water and solutes are recovered from this second capillary bed. This filtrate is processed and finally collected by collecting ducts that drain into the secondary calyxes, which merge to

Kidneys: Location, Anatomy, Function & Health

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