Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System – The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. It serves as the body’s control center, processing sensory information and directing responses. The central nervous system coordinates voluntary activities, such as movement, and involuntary activities, such as breathing and heartbeat.

However, the brain cannot do this alone because it needs to receive messages from the body’s sensory receptors, which it does through communication with the spinal cord.

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

The central nervous system is called the “center” because in addition to occupying the central position of the body, the central nervous system is also the most important part of the nervous system that maintains and produces behavior.

Central Nervous System

The central nervous system consists of three main parts: the brain, spinal cord, and nerve cells:

The brain is responsible for functions such as thinking, memory formation, movement, and consciousness. The human brain is composed of three main parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.

The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is one of the most primitive areas of the brain; it consists of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata.

The cerebellum is located above the brainstem and is responsible for monitoring and regulating motor behavior, especially automatic movements and balance.

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The cerebrum is the latest part of the human brain to develop and is also the largest part of the brain (accounting for approximately 85% of the total brain mass). The brain is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, which together produce various functions such as voluntary behavior, speech, cognitive thinking, and consciousness.

The left hemisphere controls movement on the right side of the body, while the right hemisphere controls movement on the left side of the body.

The surface of the brain is covered by the cerebral cortex, often called gray matter. Gray matter consists of a thin layer of tissue, about 3 millimeters thick, that contains billions of neurons. Gray matter is the structure where memories are stored, perceptions occur, and information is processed.

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

Neurons in gray matter are connected to the rest of the brain by a layer of nerve fibers called white matter, so named because of the shiny white appearance of the material that insulates it.

Structure And Function Of The Nervous System

Gray matter has a distinctly wrinkled appearance – it’s filled with bumps separated by grooves. The bumps in the brain are called gyri, or gyri in the plural. Grooves in the brain are called clefts. Fissures and convolutions expand the surface area of ​​the cerebral cortex, ultimately increasing the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex.

Animals with the largest and more powerful brains, such as humans and some primates, have the most wrinkled brains and therefore the largest cerebral cortexes.

The spinal cord is a long, thin collection of neurons that is attached to the base of the brain (brainstem) and runs along the spine.

The spinal cord contains neuronal circuits that control some of our simple reflexes, such as moving a hand away from a hot surface without involvement of the brain.

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The central nervous system communicates with other parts of the body through nerves, which are fiber bundles that carry signals to the central nervous system. The nerves attached to the spinal cord make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Nerve roots leave the spinal cord and travel to the sides of the body, carrying messages back and forth between the brain and peripheral nerves.

The middle structures of the spinal cord are made up of gray matter, and the outer tissues are made up of white matter. There are 30 segments within the spinal cord, and each segment belongs to one of four parts:

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

In order for messages to travel throughout the central nervous system and body, billions of cells help the brain and spinal cord function.

Chapter 8 The Nervous System. Chapter 8 The Nervous System.

Neurons, or nerve cells, connect to each other to send and receive messages in the brain and spinal cord. Neurons work together to carry sensory messages to the brain and are responsible for decisions, emotions, and muscle activity.

There are approximately 86 billion neurons in the CNS, with thousands of different subtypes that serve different functions. Each neuron consists of a cell body (cell body), axon, and dendrites.

Glial cells are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system. They do not transmit messages themselves, but protect and support neurons. Glial cells make up approximately 90% of the total cells in the central nervous system. There are three types of glial cells in the central nervous system: stellate cells, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.

Star cells are the main support cells of the central nervous system, producing and secreting proteins called neurotrophic factors (which support the growth and survival of neurons). These types of cells also help remove harmful proteins and chemicals that can damage neurons.

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Microglia are responsible for clearing damaged neurons and infections and are important in maintaining the health of the central nervous system. They also produce molecules called cytokines, which regulate cellular immunity to injury.

Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing a fatty substance called myelin, which is used as an insulator around neuron axons. Myelin is essential for neurons, which carry electrical messages faster than neurons without myelin insulation.

Since the central nervous system is critical for multiple functions as well as survival, it is well protected. The skull encloses the brain, and the spinal cord runs through the middle of hollow bony columns called vertebrae.

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

In addition to this, the brain and spinal cord are also protected by three layers of membranes called the meninges (these layers are specifically called the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater).

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To ensure that the brain and spinal cord are not in direct contact with any skull or vertebrae, they float in a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.

Cerebrospinal fluid fills the space between the two meninges and circulates within the ventricles of the central nervous system, providing a cushion around the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from damage.

Noback, C. R., Ruggiero, D. A., Strominger, N. L., & Demarest, R. J. (Eds.). (2005). The human nervous system: structure and function (Issue 744). Springer Science & Business Media.

Dr Saul Mcleod is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years’ experience working in further and higher education. He has published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Nervous System Structure Function

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor at Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and education. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are protected by bony structures, membranes, and fluids. The brain is located in the cranial cavity of the skull and consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. The nerves involved are cranial nerves and spinal nerves.

The nervous system has three main functions: sensory input, data integration, and motor output. Sensory input refers to the information or data the body collects through neurons, glia and synapses. The nervous system consists of excitable nerve cells (neurons) and the synapses that form between the neurons and connect them to centers or other neurons throughout the body. These neurons function under excitation or inhibition, and although nerve cells may vary in size and location, communication between them determines their function. These nerves carry impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. The data is then processed through data integration, which only happens in the brain. After the brain processes the information, impulses are conducted from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands, called motor output. Glial cells are found within tissues and are not excitable but contribute to myelination, ion regulation, and extracellular fluid.

The nervous system is made up of two main parts or subdivisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the “control center” of the body. There are multiple centers within the central nervous system responsible for sensation, movement, and data integration. These centers can be subdivided into lower-order centers (including the spinal cord and brainstem) and higher-order centers that communicate with the brain through effectors.

Structure And Function Of Central Nervous System

The PNS is a vast network of spinal cord and cranial nerves connected to the brain and spinal cord. It contains sensory receptors that help process changes in the internal and external environment. These messages are sent to the central nervous system via afferent sensory nerves. The PNS is further divided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. Autonomic nerves provide involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscle. The body has autonomous control over skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscles. These two systems work together by allowing nerves from Panax notoginseng saponins to enter and become part of the central nervous system, and vice versa.

The Human Nervous System

The central nervous system (CNS) represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Together with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), it

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