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- 1 Solutions To Climate Change Effects On Agriculture
- 2 Drought And Climate Change
- 3 Climate Change And Agriculture: Strategies To Mitigate Risks
- 4 Divergent Effects Of Climate Change On Future Groundwater Availability In Key Mid Latitude Aquifers
- 5 Poster ‘how To Resist Climate Change?’
Solutions To Climate Change Effects On Agriculture
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Crop and livestock production is likely to decline and even be abandoned in parts of Europe’s southern and Mediterranean regions due to the increased negative impacts of climate change, according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) report published today. Adapting to climate change must be a top priority for the EU’s agricultural sector if it is to improve resilience to extreme events such as drought, heatwaves and floods, the study says.
Climate change is setting new records around the world and the adverse effects of this change are already affecting agricultural production in Europe, particularly in the south. Despite some progress, more needs to be done to adapt the sector itself, and especially at the farm-level, and future EU policies need to be designed in ways that facilitate and accelerate transitions in the sector. Hans Bruininkx, Executive Director
Drought And Climate Change
The adverse effects of climate change are already being felt across Europe. Extreme weather, including the recent heat wave in many parts of the European Union, is already causing economic damage to farmers and the EU’s agricultural sector. Future climate change may also have some positive effects due to longer growing seasons and more suitable crop conditions, but these effects will be outweighed by an increase in extreme events negatively affecting the sector.
These adverse effects are expected to increase due to expected climate change, according to the report ‘Climate Change Adaptation in the Agricultural Sector in Europe.’ The report looks at the main climate change issues facing agriculture in the EU and the outlook over the years. Next it provides an overview of how EU policies and programs address climate change adaptation and includes examples of potential and successful adaptation actions. This assessment is consistent with the key messages of the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on climate change and land.
‘Climate change is setting new records around the world and the adverse effects of this change are already affecting agricultural production in Europe, particularly in the south. Despite some progress, more needs to be done to adapt the sector itself, and especially at the farm-level, and future EU policies need to be designed in such a way as to facilitate and accelerate the transition in this sector,’ said Hans Bruininkx, Executive Director .
Climate impacts have led to poorer harvests and higher production costs, affecting the price, quantity and quality of farmed produce in parts of Europe. Although climate change is projected to improve growing crop conditions in parts of northern Europe, the opposite is true for crop productivity in southern Europe. Yields of non-irrigated crops such as wheat, maize and sugar beet are projected to decline by up to 50% in southern Europe by 2050, according to projections using high-end emissions scenarios. This can result in a significant reduction in farm income. 2050, with large regional variations.
Helping Countries Tackle Climate Change
In a similar scenario, agricultural land values are projected to decline by more than 80% in parts of southern Europe by 2100, leading to land abandonment. Trade patterns are also affected, which in turn affects agricultural income. While food security in the European Union is not under threat, rising global food demand could put pressure on food prices in the coming decades, the report said.
Most Member States have national adaptation strategies. Although all these strategies include agriculture as a priority sector, only a limited number of countries have included specific adaptation measures for the agricultural sector.
The European Union’s Adaptation Strategy is the key driver of adaptation action in Europe. One of its objectives is the mainstreaming of various EU policies, including the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, adaptation at the farm level often does not occur due to lack of financing, policy support for adaptation, institutional capacity and access to adaptation knowledge. The report emphasizes that more knowledge, innovation and awareness raising are needed to improve the effective use of already available adaptation measures, such as the introduction of adapted crops, improved irrigation techniques, field margins and agroforestry, crop diversification or precision farming (see figure).
These practices will lead to better management of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, soil, land and water resources, which in turn will help preserve local ecosystems and biodiversity. The report also suggests that EU member states should better prioritize adaptation in the agricultural sector, for example by increasing the financing of adaptation measures through the implementation of the CAP.
Climate Change And Agriculture: Strategies To Mitigate Risks
The agricultural sector also has an important role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agricultural sector accounts for around 10% of all greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. Methane (CH
) are the two most important air pollutants from agriculture. Although greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture have declined since 1990, the sector needs to do more to contribute to reaching the European Union’s greenhouse gas emission reduction targets between 2030 and 2050.
To reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, Europe needs to reshape its food system and reduce agricultural emissions from fertilizers, manure storage and livestock. This can be achieved by improving manure use, manure management efficiency and animal productivity through breeding. Consumer behavior also needs to change. Changing dietary habits, such as eating less meat and reducing food waste, will contribute to additional reductions.
In relation to climate change and adaptation issues, the European Commission’s LIFE (The Financial Instrument for the Environment and Climate Action Programme) ‘Ready, Steady, Green!’ Published a brochure on adaptation, showing how LIFE helps adapt to agriculture and forestry. Climate change.
Divergent Effects Of Climate Change On Future Groundwater Availability In Key Mid Latitude Aquifers
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Filed under: Climate Change Impacts Agricultural Emissions Extreme Weather Events Climate Change Adaptation Common Agricultural Policy Sustainable Farming
Filed under: Climate Change Impacts , Agricultural Emissions , Extreme Weather Events , Climate Change Adaptation , Common Agricultural Policy , Sustainable Farming A new study shows that pesticides are a key contributor to climate change, from their production, transport and application. Their degradation and disposal. That’s according to researchers at the Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA), who say that while pesticides have been important tools in agricultural production, their effectiveness is declining while climate change increases the need for more use.
According to PANNA, the pesticide-climate change connection is a loop: pesticides add emissions to the atmosphere that accelerate climate change, climate warming stresses agricultural systems and increases the number of insects and pests, requiring more pesticides.
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Compared to agricultural chemicals such as nitrogen fertilizers, with well-known negative environmental impacts, greenhouse gas emissions from pesticides are understudied and underestimated. To produce one kilogram of pesticide, on average, 10 times more energy is required than one kilogram of nitrogen fertilizer. Some pesticides, such as sulphuryl fluoride, which are used on insects and bugs, are themselves greenhouse gases: emitting one tonne of sulphuryl fluoride is equivalent to emitting about 5,000 tonnes of CO2. The researchers also say that oil and gas companies exacerbate the problem and profit from it: 99 percent of synthetic pesticides are derived from petroleum.
California uses about 20 percent of the pesticides applied annually across the United States. The state grows fewer commodity crops than other regions, but supplies one-third of the nation’s vegetables and two-thirds of the nation’s fruits and nuts. Because the value of fruits and vegetables is so high that any damage would be significant and costly – causing California farmers to use nearly five times more pesticides than the national average to avoid damage.
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“Over the years, billions of pounds of pesticides have been used in California alone, which can increase greenhouse gas emissions, especially when produced artificially,” said Asha Sharma, organizing co-director of PANNA and co-author of the report. “Almost all — 95 percent — of California farmers are farming conventionally. Only 5 percent is organic. With pesticides, that scale is important.”
Poster ‘how To Resist Climate Change?’
Rising temperatures have led to reduced crop resilience: heat stress, changing rainfall patterns and more pests.
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