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Compiles current research in the analysis and design of power electronic converters for industrial applications and renewable energy systems, presenting modern and future applications of power electronic systems in electric vehicles.
Role Of Power Electronics In Renewable Energy Systems
Emphasizing the importance and long-term viability of power electronics for renewable energy, this book combines state-of-the-art knowledge and advanced techniques at various stages of research. The topics included are not currently available to professional practitioners and are intended to enable readers to directly apply the knowledge gained to their designs. The book addresses the practical issues of current and future electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and focuses mainly on solutions based on power electronics and motor drives for electric vehicle (EV) technologies. Propulsion system requirements and vehicle sizing for EVs are discussed with practical system sizing examples. Key EV battery technologies are described as well as related battery management issues. PHEV power system architectures and advanced electric power charging infrastructure for EVs and PHEVs are detailed. The EV/PHEV interface with renewable energy is explained, with practical examples. This book explores new topics for further research around the world, and defines existing challenges, concerns, and defined problems that are consistent with international trends, standards, and programs for power conversion, distribution, and sustainable energy development. This will lead to the development of current state-of-the-art applications of power electronics for renewable energy, transportation and industrial applications and will help to add experience to various industries and academia on energy conversion technologies and distributed energy sources. Hybrid renewable energy power systems are positioned to be long-term power solutions for portable, transportation and stationary system applications. Hybrid power systems are virtually limitless in the possible configurations and configurations to produce the desired power for a particular system. A hybrid system can include solar panels, wind power, fuel cells, electrolysis, batteries, capacitors, and other forms of electricity. Hybrid systems can be configured with power electronics to handle low, high and variable power needs. For example, solar panels can be used to convert solar energy into electrical energy when sunlight hits the PV panels directly for maximum efficiency, and then electricity from wind turbines can be used when the wind speeds up. And direction is appropriate. The energy of these devices can be stored in batteries and used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can then be fed into fuel cells to provide electricity for long-term or portable or transportation applications. Power electronics provide a key element in stabilizing, enhancing and managing power when needed.
Intelligent Power Module Targets Inverters For Renewable Energy Systems
The electrical output of a particular power system may not provide the required input for a particular device. Many applications, such as grid or residential power, require AC power. Other devices such as mobile phones require DC power. However, fuel cells and batteries produce a DC voltage whose magnitude depends on the number of cells stored in series. An inverter can be used to convert the output from DC to AC power when needed. Also, many renewable energy systems can have slow start-up times and are slow to respond to peak power needs. Therefore, systems must be designed to compensate for high or intermittent power requirements. Power converters can be used to regulate the flow of power through a circuit. Figure 1 shows a general schematic with a fuel cell showing the power electronics as a key element in a fuel cell system.
Most renewable energy technologies only provide a certain voltage and current density (depending on the load) to the power converter. The power converter must then adjust the voltage available from the fuel cell to a high enough voltage to drive the load. As shown in Figure 2, a DC-DC boost converter is required to step up the voltage level for the inverter. This boost converter, in addition to boosting the fuel cell voltage, also regulates the inverter input voltage and separates the low and high voltage circuits.
An example of a hybrid power system is shown in Figure 3. This fuel cell/lithium ion battery charger system has the following main components: fuel cell, lithium ion battery, constant voltage regulation system, and smart battery charger. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery is located inside the fuel cell unit to keep the microcontroller in low-power standby or programmed timer sleep mode for several days. The battery will also enable instant system startup and power-up during system shutdown. The battery will automatically charge when the fuel cell is running. The internal battery charging circuit will stop charging the Li-ion battery when it reaches a certain voltage or has been charged for a certain time.
Two basic power electronics areas needed in renewable energy applications are power regulators and inverters. The electrical power output of fuel cells, solar cells, and wind turbines is not constant. The fuel cell voltage is typically controlled by voltage regulators, DC/DC converters, and other circuits at a constant value that is higher or lower than the operating voltage of the fuel cell.
Power Electronics, Smart Grid And Renewable Energy Systems
Multilevel converters are of interest in the field of distributed energy sources because many batteries, fuel cells, solar cells and wind turbines can be connected through a multilevel converter to feed a load or grid without voltage balance issues. The general function of a multilevel inverter is to generate the desired AC voltage from multiple levels of DC voltage. For this reason, multilevel inverters are ideal for connecting renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics or fuel cells or energy storage devices such as capacitors or batteries in series or parallel with the AC grid. Multilevel converters also have a lower switching frequency than conventional converters, which leads to reduced switching losses and increased efficiency.
Advances in fuel cell technology require similar advances in power converter technology. By considering the power conversion design parameters in the overall system design, a small, inexpensive converter can be built that can be combined with an appropriately sized solar panel, wind turbine or fuel cell for high system power and energy density. .
A DC-to-DC converter is used to regulate the voltage as the output of the renewable energy system varies with the load current. Most fuel cell and solar cell systems are designed for low voltage; Therefore, a DC-DC boost converter is often used to step up the voltage to a higher level. A converter is required for these renewable energy systems because the voltage varies with the power required. A typical fuel cell drops from 1.23 V DC (no-load) to 0.5 V DC at full load. Consequently, a converter must work with a wide range of voltages.
DC-to-DC converters are important in portable electronic devices such as cell phones and laptop computers where batteries are used. Such electronic devices often have many sub-circuits, each of which requires a voltage level that is different from that provided by the battery or external supply. As the battery’s stored power is drained, a DC-to-DC converter provides a method to increase the voltage from a slightly reduced battery voltage which saves space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same task. Figure 4 shows an example of a DC-to-DC converter device.
The Big Picture
Renewable energy can be used as the main source of electricity in both homes and businesses. These energy systems must be connected to the AC grid. The output of the renewable energy system will also need to be converted to AC in some grid-independent systems. An inverter can be used to do this. The resulting AC current can be converted to the required voltage and frequency for use with suitable transformers and control circuits. Inverters are used in many applications from switching power supplies in computers to high voltage direct current applications that provide large amounts of power. Inverters are commonly used to apply AC power from DC sources such as fuel cells, solar panels, and batteries. Figure 5 shows a picture of the inverter.
Electronics are an important part of the devices we use every day and are an important part of hybrid energy systems. These components help convert direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), help increase the voltage of the energy system, regulate the power that the system provides, and/or generate the appropriate voltages and timings that the vehicle needs. . Without the integration of these electronics into the system, the voltage and power produced by the power system will not be very useful. Therefore, power electronics are an essential part of any hybrid energy system.
Dr. Colin Spiegel is a Mathematical Modeling and Technical Writing Consultant (Chairman of SEMSCIO) and Professor with a Ph.D. and an MSc degree in Engineering. He has over 17 years of experience in engineering, statistics, data science, research and technical writing as a consultant, employee and independent business owner for multiple companies. She is the author of Design and Construction of Fuel Cells (McGraw-Hill, 2007) and “PEM Fuel”.
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