Position Of Lungs In The Human Body – The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system in humans and most other animals, including some snails and a small number of fish. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the spine on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the air and carry it into the bloodstream and release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere in a process of gas exchange. The pleura, which are thin, smooth and moist, serve to reduce friction between the lungs and the chest wall during breathing, allowing easy and effortless movement of the lungs.
Respiration is driven by different muscle systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles, and birds use their various muscles to maintain and promote respiration. In earlier tetrapods, air was drawn into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles by buccal pumping, a mechanism still found in amphibians. In humans, the main respiratory muscle that controls breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds, including human speech, possible.
- 1 Position Of Lungs In The Human Body
- 2 Organs Of The Body Chart
- 3 Human Lungs Hi Res Stock Photography And Images
Position Of Lungs In The Human Body
Humans have two lungs, one on the left and one on the right. They are located in the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung is larger and heavier than the left, which shares chest space with the heart. The lungs together weigh approximately 1.3 kilograms (2.9 pounds). The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract, which starts from the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles and receives inhaled air through the conducting zone. The conduction zone ds in terminal bronchioles. They divide into the respiratory bronchioles of the respiratory zone, which divide into alveolar ducts that lead to the alveolar sacs, which contain the alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Alveoli are also sparsely located on the walls of respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts. Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometers (1,500 mi) of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli. Each lung is enclosed in a pleural sac of two membranes called pleurae; the membranes are separated by a film of pleural fluid that allows the inner and outer membranes to slide over each other as breathing takes place without much friction. The inner pleura also divides each lung into parts called lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two. The lobes are further divided into bronchopulmonary segments and pulmonary lobules. The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood from the heart in the pulmonary circulation for the purpose of obtaining oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, and a separate supply of oxygenated blood to the lung tissue in the bronchial circulation. Deoxygenated blood travels from the heart through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to be oxidized in the capillaries of the alveoli. Once the blood is oxygenated, it returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein to be pumped to the rest of the body.
Human Respiratory System Lungs Anatomy Stock Photo By ©magicmine 323015170
Lung tissue can be affected by a number of respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema and may be related to smoking or exposure to harmful substances. A number of occupational lung diseases can be caused by substances such as coal dust, asbestos fibers and crystalline silica dust. Diseases such as bronchitis can also affect the respiratory tract. Medical terms related to the lung often begin with pulmo-, from Latin pulmonarius (of the lungs) as in pulmonology, or with pneumo- (from Greek πνεύμων “lung”) as in pneumonia.
In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outgrowth of the foregut, a tube that goes on to form the upper part of the digestive system. When the lungs are formed, the fetus is trapped in a fluid-filled amniotic sac and so they do not function to breathe. Blood is also diverted from the lungs through the ductus arteriosus. At birth, however, air begins to pass through the lungs and the diverting duct closes so the lungs can begin to breathe. The lungs are not fully developed until early childhood.
The lungs are located in the chest on either side of the heart in the chest. They have a conical shape with a narrow rounded apex at the apex and a wide concave base that rests on the convex surface of the diaphragm.
The apex of the lung extends into the root of the neck, reaching a little above the level of the sternum d of the first rib. The lungs extend from near the spine in the chest to the front of the chest and down from the lower part of the trachea to the diaphragm.
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The left lung shares space with the heart and has an indentation in its border called the left lung cardiac notch to accommodate this.
The front and outer sides of the lungs face the ribs, which make slight indentations on their surface. The medial surfaces of the lungs face the center of the thorax and lie against the heart, the great vessels, and the carina, where the trachea divides into the two main bronchi.
A heart impression is an indentation formed on the surfaces of the lungs where they rest on the heart.
Both lungs have a central recession called the hilus, where the blood vessels and airways pass into the lungs, forming the root of the lung.
Lower Respiratory System
The lungs are surrounded by pleurae. The pleurae are two serous membranes; the outer parietal pleura lines the inner chest wall, and the inner visceral pleura lines the surface of the lungs directly. Between the pleura is an occipital space called the pleural cavity containing a thin layer of lubricating pleural fluid.
Each lung is divided into sections called lobes by folds of the visceral pleura like fissures. The lobes are divided into segments, and the segments have further divisions such as lobules. There are three lobes in the right lung and two lobes in the left lung.
The fissures are formed early in pratal development by intussusceptions of the visceral pleura, which divide the lobar bronchi and divide the lungs into lobes, which aid their expansion.
The right lung is divided into three lobes by a horizontal fissure and one oblique fissure. The left lung is divided into two lobes by an oblique fissure, which is closely aligned with the oblique fissure of the right lung. In the right lung, the superior horizontal fissure separates the superior (superior) lobe from the middle lobe. The inferior, oblique fissure separates the lower lobe from the middle and upper lobes.
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Variations in fissures are quite common, as they are either incompletely formed or persist as an additional fissure, as in the azygous fissure, or abst. Incomplete fissures are responsible for interlobar collateral ventilation, airflow between the lobes, which is undesirable in some lung volume reduction procedures.
The main or primary bronchus is located in the lungs at the hilus and initially branches into secondary bronchi, also known as lobar bronchi, which supply air to each lobe of the lung. The lobar bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi, also known as segmental bronchi, and these supply air to the further divisions of the lobes, known as bronchopulmonary segments. Each bronchopulmonary segment has its own (segmental) bronchus and arterial supply.
The left lung (left) and the right lung (right). The lobes of the lungs can be se, and the central root of the lung is also prest.
The right lung has more lobes and segments than the left. It is divided into three lobes, an upper, middle and lower lobe by two fissures, one oblique and one horizontal.
Organs Of The Body Chart
The superior horizontal fissure separates the superior from the middle lobe. It begins in the lower oblique fissure near the posterior border of the lung and, passing horizontally forward, crosses the anterior border at the level of the thoracic d of the fourth costal cartilage; on the mediastinal surface can be traced back to the hilus.
The inferior, oblique fissure separates the lower from the middle and upper lobes and is closely aligned with the oblique fissure in the left lung.
The mediastinal surface of the right lung is limited by a number of nearby structures. The heart is located in an impression called the cardiac impression. Above the hilus of the lung is an arcuate groove for the azygos vein, and above it is a wide groove for the superior vena cava and the right brachiocephalic vein; behind it and near the apex of the lung is a groove for the brachiocephalic artery. There is a groove for the esophagus behind the hilus and pulmonary ligament, and near the bottom of the esophageal groove there is a deeper groove for the inferior vena cava before it crosses the heart.
Right lung weight varies between individuals, with a standard reference range in m of 155–720 g (0.342–1.587 lb)
Human Lungs Hi Res Stock Photography And Images
The left lung is divided into two lobes, an upper and a lower lobe, by an oblique fissure that extends from the costal to the mediastinal surface of the lung
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