Parts Of The Peripheral Nervous System And Its Function – One of the two main components of your body’s nervous system is your peripheral nervous system (PNS). Information from most of your senses is fed into your brain by your PNS. It carries messages that make your muscles contract. Your PNS also relays signals to your brain, which it uses to regulate vital automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of your nervous system that is not connected to your brain or spinal cord. It is responsible for relaying information from different parts of your body back to your brain and passing instructions from your brain to different parts of your body.
- 1 Parts Of The Peripheral Nervous System And Its Function
- 2 Medical Terminology Of The Nervous System
- 3 Structure And Function Of The Nervous System
Parts Of The Peripheral Nervous System And Its Function
Your brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system. Your peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that travel from your spinal cord and brain to your face and the rest of your body.
Peripheral Nervous System (pns): What It Is & Function
All of your nerves are made up of bundles of nerve cells, each of which has long finger-like extensions called axons. To form nerve fibers, nerve cells and their accompanying axons are twisted and tangled. This is similar to twisting individual threads of textile fibers together to make a larger thread. Some of the nerves in that cluster are responsible for bringing information into your brain, and the rest are responsible for sending it out.
Your brain works like a supercomputer. Without input from outside sources, the world outside your body is forgotten. Just like a computer needs peripherals like a camera, microphone or keyboard, so does your brain. Your brain gathers input about the external environment through your peripheral nervous system. Most of your peripheral nervous system enters or exits your spinal cord on its journey throughout your body.
Your cranial nerves are different from other peripheral nerves because they connect directly to your brain. These nerves carry messages from the nose, ears, mouth and many other organs. Cranial nerves also give you the sense of touch in your face, head, and neck. Other peripheral nerves connect to every part of your body. Motor nerves allow movement of different areas of the body.
Your peripheral nerves, which branch out throughout your body, send impulses from your brain to your muscles via the peripheral nerves. This allows you to move freely and perform a variety of actions, from the simple, such as picking your nose, to the complex, such as juggling.
Major Organs And Divisions Of The Nervous System
Ensuring that the systems that keep you alive are working properly requires that part of your brain is constantly active. In order for your brain to control these functions, it needs the help of your peripheral nervous system. Heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and the way the intestines break down food are examples of these processes.
The peripheral nervous system contributes to the self-care of your brain. For example, your brain controls your heartbeat, making sure that your heart circulates blood to your body as well as to your brain. Your brain would die within minutes if there was no blood flow.
Neurons are the cells that send and transmit signals through your nervous system, using both electrical and chemical signals. Each neuron consists of:
Glial (pronounced glee-uhl) cells play a variety of roles, including helping to develop and maintain neurons while you’re young and regulating how neurons work throughout life. In addition, they defend the nervous system from infections, regulate the chemical balance of the nervous system and create a myelin coating on the axons of neurons. There are 10 times more glial cells than neurons in your neurological system.
Medical Terminology Of The Nervous System
The types of nerves that are damaged cause the symptoms of peripheral nervous system problems. Motor nerve damage to your muscles causes:
Weakness, convulsions, tics, tremors and spasms Loss (muscle wasting) (muscle wasting), inability to control various body functions. The nervous system is classified into central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, leaving everything else to the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The peripheral nervous system itself is classified into two systems: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Each system has 2 components:
The somatic nervous system of the PNS is responsible for the voluntary and conscious control of skeletal muscles (the effector organ). Its afferent arm connects sensory receptors on the surface or deeper inside the body with important processing circuits, and its efferent arm directly controls skeletal muscles using motor nerves.
Nervous System 2: The Central And Peripheral Nervous System I
The autonomic nervous system (the raia) controls the body’s visceral functions and acts largely unconsciously. These visceral functions include regulating heart rate, digestion, saliva, urination, digestion and much more. The afferent (sensory) arm of this system contains receptors that monitor arterial pressure, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the blood, or the chemical composition of the contents of the digestive tract. The efferent arm of this system can be divided into parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic (SNS) components, which control numerous smooth muscles and glands.
The enteric nervous system is classified as a separate component of the autonomic nervous system and is sometimes considered a third independent branch of the PNS.
The SNS and PSNS are subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system has a unique structure, as it uses a sequential efferent pathway of two neurons. Therefore, the preganglionic neuron must first travel to and synapse in a ganglion, a cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS. A ganglion then gives rise to a postganglionic neuron that innervates the target organ.
The SNS is responsible for the body’s fight or flight response and arises from the thoracolumbar segments of the spinal cord. It includes short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons.
Introduction To The Somatic And Autonomic Nervous Systems
Ganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter, and postganglionic neurons use noradrenaline. The exception to this rule is the innervation of the sweat glands and the chromaffin cells of the renal medulla, which are cholinergic and use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter.
Another exception is the chromaffin cells of the kidney. They act as modified sympathetic ganglia without postganglionic neurons. Thus, activation of chromaffin cells by preganglionic cells releases two neurotransmitters: adrenaline and, to a lesser extent, noradrenaline, directly into the bloodstream.
Actions through the SNS are most evident when the body is dealing with stressful situations. It is designed to mobilize energy stores to cope with stress and increase your chances of survival.
The PSNS is responsible for the rest of the body and digestive actions. It arises from the craniosacral segments of the spinal cord. This system consists of long preganglionic neurons and short postganglionic neurons. Both preganglionic and postganglionic neurons use the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
How The Nervous System Impacts Daily Life
The sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways have very similar structures, but with some key differences. The table below shows a comparison of these 2 systems.
This subdivision of the PNS is located within the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, so it can directly control the functions of the GI tract. It consists of two plexuses:
The PSNS also stimulates the enteric nervous system to increase function. Similarly, the SNS can inhibit enteric function. Therefore, it is not possible to defecate in fight or flight mode.
The nervous system is classified into central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, leaving everything else to the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Nervous System 3: The Central And Peripheral Nervous System Ii
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Notes: 9.14, 9.15 Peripheral Nervous System
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Structure And Function Of The Nervous System
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