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Oil Spills And Their Impact On The Environment
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How Oil Spills Harm Birds, Dolphins, Sea Lions And Other Wildlife
Oil spill, oil spill over a large body of water. Marine oil spills became a major environmental problem in the 1960s, largely due to intensive oil exploration and production on the African continent and the use of supertankers capable of carrying more than 500,000,000 tons of oil. Special oil spills from damaged or damaged supertankers are now rare due to strict transportation and environmental regulations. However, thousands of small and large oil spills are reported every year due to the well-being of oil spills and tanker operations, with the total oil spilled annually into the world’s oceans exceeding one million tons. The intentional or negligent release of used fuel and lubricants by industries and individuals greatly increases the overall environmental problem. Combined with natural seawater, these sources add oil to the world’s waterways at a rate of 3.5 to 6 million tons per year.
The cost of fossil fuels is high both economically and environmentally. Oil on the surface of the ocean is harmful to many types of aquatic life because it prevents enough sunlight from penetrating the surface, and it also reduces the level of dissolved oxygen. Petroleum oils damage the absorbent and waterproof properties of feathers and feathers, so oiled birds and mammals can die from hypothermia. Additionally, ingested oil can be toxic to infected animals, and damage to habitat and reproductive rates can delay the long-term recovery of animal populations from the short-term damage caused by the spill itself. Damage to plant life can be extensive as well; Saltwater marshes and mangroves are two coastal ecosystems that are often affected by oil spills. If the beaches and residential areas are polluted, tourism and business can be seriously affected, as well as power plants and other facilities that attract or discharge from the sea along the coast. One of the industries most affected by oil spills is fishing. Many oil spills are followed by the immediate cessation of commercial fishing, at least to prevent damage to vessels and equipment but also to prevent the capture and sale of potentially contaminated fish or shellfish.
Firefighters try to put out a fire at the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, April 21, 2010.
The environmental impact of oil spills has been recognized recently, but their long-term impact on the ecosystem of the contaminated area is difficult to assess. The cost of compensating people and communities affected by oil spills has been a major factor in reducing the likelihood of similar events in the future.
What Are The Environmental Effects Of An Oil Spill?
To date, no satisfactory method has been developed to clean up large oil spills, although unusual spills in the latter years of the 20th century have required significant advances in technology and management of integrated solutions. Essentially, the response to an oil spill would be to contain the oil and extract it sufficiently so that economic activity is possible and the process of restoring the nature of the marine environment can take place. Floating plants can be placed near the source of a breach or at the entrance of pipelines and ports to reduce the spread of oil on the surface of the sea. Skimming, a technique that, like the use of plants, works best in still waters, involves different processes that separate the oil from the water and place the oil in collection tanks. Another method is to use various sorbents (eg, grass, volcanic ash, and polyester shavings) that absorb oil from the water. If necessary, the chemicals and shells can be spread to speed up the sea. Removing oil from sand dunes and rocky shores is a complex process, often involving a small force of workers using hand tools or using heavy construction equipment to remove the contaminated debris and haul it away.
Disaster in Brittany, France, in 1978 (223,000,000 tons of oil and gas spilled). Both events led to lasting changes in the transportation and handling of environmental emergencies such as oil spills. In North America, the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, caused significant environmental and economic damage, although it is less than the largest oil spill in history in terms of oil spills (m 37 000 000) tons).
Largest oil spills in history * list of ship name year of spill size (metric tons) damaged * Source of list and spill size: International Tanker Pollution Association. Sources of damage documentation: International Solid Waste Association; Center for Documentation, Research and Studies on Unexpected Water Pollution; and the US Navy and Air Force. 1 Queen of the Atlantic 1979 Off Tobago, West Indies 287 000 000 After colliding with another tank, the Queen of the Atlantic caught fire and was towed 300 miles out to sea, where she sank. Even if all the oil cargoes were lost, only the environment was damaged. 2 ABT Summer 1991 off Angola, southwest Africa 260,000 700 nautical miles from Angola, this tanker caught fire and sank with the loss of five crew members. Its cargo of oil was not lost, but there was no damage to the environment. 3 Castillo de Bellver 1983 off Saldanha Island, South Africa 252 000 000 Castillo de Bellver caught fire, split in two, and sank. Its cargo of petroleum was scattered by wind and storm. Only minor damage to wildlife and marine life was reported. 4 Amoco Cadiz 1978 from Brittany, France 223,000 Suffering from a failure to steer, Amoco Cadiz stalled and broke in two. Its entire load of oil and gas spilled, polluting more than 300 kilometers of Breton Sea and killing thousands of birds and marine animals. Thousands of workers cleaned up beaches and swamps in one of the largest oil spill responses. 5 Haven 1991 Genoa, Italy 144,000 Haven caught fire and split. The oil was recovered from the sea, but about 100 kilometers of sea in Italy and France had to be mechanically cleaned. 6 Odyssey 1988 bound for Nova Scotia, Canada 132,000,000 Filled with oil, the Odyssey broke in two and sank in the Atlantic Ocean 700 kilometers from its destination. Due to the distance between the land, no damage to the environment has been observed. 7 Torrey Canyon 1967 Isles of Scilly, near Cornwall, England 119,000 Torrey Canyon overflowed and spilled an entire load of oil, polluting the coast of Cornwall and the Channel Islands and Brittany, France. The powerful gas used to disperse the oil was later determined to be more environmentally damaging than the oil that was fracked. 8 Starfish 1972 Gulf of Oman 115 000 000 The Starfish, loaded with oil, collided with another tank, caught fire, and sank with the loss of 12 crew members. No environmental damage was reported. 9 Irenes Serenade 1980 Navarino Bay, Greece 100 000 000 This tanker caught fire while refueling at the port of Pylos and sank. Some of the spilled oil and fuel from the salvaged boats were washed ashore, but some drifted ashore and had to be cleaned up by hundreds of crews on shore and in small boats. 10 Urquiola 1976 La Coruña, Spain 100 000 000 Filled with oil, the Urquiola runs aground and catches fire, missing its captain. Some of the oil was salvaged from the ship, returned to the surface of the sea, or dispersed by the use of heavy chemicals, but the surface of the sea near the oil and debris was only partially cleaned. 11 Hawaiian Patriot 1977 en route to Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 95,000,000 Hawaiian Patriot exploded in midair and caught fire and sank 300 nautical miles from its destination, losing one crew member. Ocean currents have reduced oil spills. 12 Independţa 1979 near Istanbul, Turkey 95 000 000 Independţa hit another ship and caught fire in the southern Bosphorus, killing 43 crewmen. Most of the oil spilled was spilled, although some beaches and beaches around the Sea of Marmara were damaged. 13 Jakob Maersk 1975 near Porto, Portugal 88 000 000 When entering port
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