Microgrids In Las Vegas: Enhancing Energy Resilience And Profitability In A Desert Climate

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Microgrids In Las Vegas: Enhancing Energy Resilience And Profitability In A Desert Climate

Microgrids In Las Vegas: Enhancing Energy Resilience And Profitability In A Desert Climate

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Microgrid Development In Puerto Rico: A Shared Point Of Focus And Action That Could Work Anywhere

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By Amad Ali Amad Ali Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Hafiz Abdul Muqeet Hafiz Abdul Muqeet Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Tahir Khan Tahir Khan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Asif Hussain Asif Hussain Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4 , Muhammad Waseem Muhammad Waseem Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 and Kamran Ali Khan Niazi Kamran Ali Khan Niazi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 6, *

Received: 5 January 2023 / Revised: 7 February 2023 / Accepted: 10 February 2023 / Published: 13 February 2023

Microgrids: Advancing Energy Resilience

(This article is part of the special issue Energy efficiency technologies and policies for productive sectors: environmental, economic and social implications)

Energy is very important in daily life. The intelligent power system provides an energy management system using various techniques. Among other load types, campus microgrids are very important and consume large amounts of energy. Energy management systems in campus prosumer microgrids have been addressed in several works. A comprehensive study of previous work did not examine the architecture, tools and energy storage systems of campus microgrids. This paper presents a survey of campus prosumer microgrids considering their energy management schemes, optimization techniques, architectures, storage types, and design tools. The survey includes a decade of past work for true analysis. In optimization techniques, deterministic and metaheuristic methods are reviewed considering their pros and cons. Smart grids are being installed in several campuses across the world and these are considered to be the best alternatives to conventional energy systems. However, efficient energy management techniques and tools are needed to make these networks more economical and stable.

Campus microgrid; consumer market; batteries; energy management system; distributed generation; intelligent network; renewable energy resources; energy storage system

Microgrids In Las Vegas: Enhancing Energy Resilience And Profitability In A Desert Climate

Energy crises have become important challenges for the economic development of a country. In the modern era, machinery is considered a more effective substitute for humans in many industries. Smart devices are constantly being developed, which makes our routine much easier. In today’s world, it is impossible to imagine a life without these intelligent devices and machinery. However, everything has a price, and the price of this ever-increasing dependence on machinery is the substantial consumption of energy resources [1]. These smart machines run on electricity produced using unconventional energy resources such as coal, oil and gas. The increasing use of these fossil fuels has caused two serious environmental disorders. The first is the rapid depletion of fossil fuels and the second is the production of dangerous gases and waste materials, which results in a direct increase in environmental pollution. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) indicated in 2018 that the United States had the highest rate of gross domestic product [2], but British Petroleum ranked the United States’ air quality index United as the poorest compared to other countries in the world [3]. Polluted air in any country is one of the main causes of death of its population [4]. Fossil fuels are not renewable, so their continued depletion translates into a gradual increase in energy production prices, which increases inflation, especially in underdeveloped countries. Furthermore, few countries hold a major share of these non-renewable energy resources, making those that do powerful enough to control the economies of those countries whose electricity production depends largely on fossil fuels. Excessive use of non-renewable energy resources for generation is discouraged by modern researchers [5].

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Electricity produced from fossil fuels is transmitted to remote areas and then distributed. In addition to energy losses during generation, these transmission and distribution stages also have different types of losses, and in some cases, these losses can increase by more than 50% [6]. An alternative approach is to eliminate the transmission phase and use distributed generation instead. In this type of generation the plants are positioned directly near the user loads. Losses can be minimized by using distributed generation. These distributed power plants can use renewable energy resources such as solar [7], wind [8] and biogas [9] or non-renewable energy resources such as geothermal energy [10], diesel generators [11] and furnace oil [12] for energy production. To minimize environmental impacts, the use of green energy resources is suggested in these distributed energy generation plants [13]. Another advantage of these green energy resources is their renewable nature, due to which they have also been called renewable energy resources (Res). Renewable sources are environmentally friendly and renewable, but the only obstacle to the use of this type of resources is their intermittency, due to their extreme dependence on weather conditions [14]. To reduce this problem, several techniques have been proposed in the literature, such as the incorporation of appropriately sized accumulations, architectural modifications, optimization, energy coordination schemes, etc. Generating plants operating on RE with a suitable power coordination scheme and communication structure between producers and consumers are called smart grids. Smart grids typically operate in isolated or grid-connected modes. In isolated mode, a smart grid provides energy to a connected consumer without having any connection to the main electricity grid, and storage therefore becomes necessary for these smart grids to overcome the problem of intermittency of renewable sources. In grid-connected mode, the smart grid supports the core grid and provides ancillary services, as well as meeting the load requirements of consumers [15].

Small-scale smart grids that simultaneously produce and consume electricity are called prosumer microgrids [16]. The basic structure of a microgrid is represented in Figure 1. These microgrids can be of various types, from hospital to residential and from industrial to institutional. A research institution should not depend on the main grid for its energy needs, especially if the main grid produces power from conventional energy resources. Many institutions are commercial and these institutional microgrids are considered more important due to the research and development facilities available in an institution. These types of microgrids are also called campus microgrids [17]. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a modern technology that allows an operator to remotely monitor and control the activities of a smart network using smart sensors [18]. Devices present at the interface of a smart network communicate bidirectionally and are subject to external cyber attacks. Cybersecurity is also very important to protect a smart network from external hacking attacks and to protect consumer data [19].

The organization of the work is reported here. The methodology is provided in Section 2. An overview of campus energy management is presented in Section 3, different energy management schemes are discussed in Section 4, simulation tools are discussed in Section 5, protected microgrids enabled IoT are disused in Section 6, and the conclusion is reported in Section 7.

This article presents a comprehensive review of the latest research works related to campus smart microgrid energy management. The main objective of the work was to target articles that discussed real-time or simulated university microgrids, with the restriction that each selected article must contain at least one aspect of university microgrids.

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The review methodology was the same for all selected articles as they all used different energy management schemes for campus microgrid design and optimization. Previous studies are classified based on architectures, storage methods, optimization techniques, simulation tools, and IOT technologies. The review study was conducted by critically reading the articles and identifying significant points in the articles. Table 1 highlights the most important articles selected for each category.

Energy management is defined as a process for optimizing the production of energy from renewable sources and transmitting this energy to consumers, while cost-effectively minimizing the risk of system failures and gas emissions [106]. The concept of energy management began in the 1970s under the name energy control centers, also known as ECCs. This concept has been further expanded with the inclusion of

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