Lymphatic System Structure And Immune System Function – Your lymphatic system is a group of organs, vessels, and tissues that protect you from infection and maintain a healthy balance of fluids in your body. The organs of the lymphatic system include the bone marrow, thymus, and lymph nodes. Swollen lymph nodes are a sign of common infections such as strep, but more serious conditions such as cancer.
Your lymphatic system is a network of organs, vessels, and tissues that work together to return a colorless, watery fluid (lymph) to your circulatory system (bloodstream).
- 1 Lymphatic System Structure And Immune System Function
- 2 Structure And Function Of The Immune System In The Spleen
- 3 Lymphatic System Organs, Functions, Diseases
- 4 Solved Describe The Structures Of The Lymphatic System And
Lymphatic System Structure And Immune System Function
As an important part of your immune system, the lymphatic system protects you from infection and removes old or abnormal cells that your body doesn’t need. The functions of the lymphatic system also include maintaining normal fluid levels in your body and absorbing fats and fat-soluble vitamins so they can enter the bloodstream.
Structure And Function Of The Immune System In The Spleen
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About 20 liters of plasma (the liquid part of your blood) seeps out of tiny holes in the thin walls of capillaries every day. Imagine water flowing out of a sponge. Where does this fluid go? It delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues around each capillary. Tissues voraciously absorb all the nutrients and leave behind waste (like a child who finishes eating but leaves behind sticky napkins).
Plasma doesn’t mind cleaning up the mess—it picks up the waste and then flows through the pores in your capillary walls and returns to the bloodstream in the same way. About 17 liters of plasma are returned to the bloodstream in this way every day. Since 20 liters originally leaked through the capillary walls, 3 liters are still circulating in your body tissues.
This is where your lymphatic system comes into play. Small lymphatic capillaries draw this remaining fluid from your tissues. The fluid changed its name during its journey: it is now called lymph instead of plasma. Your lymphatic capillaries carry lymph into larger tubes called lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatic System Organs, Functions, Diseases
These vessels keep the lymph moving until it eventually reaches one of the two main ducts in the chest. They’re called your right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct, and they’re a bit like on-ramps on a highway. They merge into large vessels called subclavian veins and drain lymph into them. From there, the lymph re-enters the bloodstream and can flow through your body again.
Many different organs and structures make up your lymphatic system. All of these parts work together to help keep you healthy.
Many conditions can affect different parts of your lymphatic system. Some occur before birth or during development during childhood. Others develop as a result of illness or injury. Some common diseases and disorders of the lymphatic system include:
Your provider may use imaging tests such as a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to see if your lymphatic system is working as it should. Your provider will tell you the test results and what they mean for you.
Solved Describe The Structures Of The Lymphatic System And
When you see a diagram of the human body, your eyes may immediately go to large organs like the heart or brain, or to the red lines that represent your arteries. But the lines that aren’t always shown in such diagrams are important, like the intricate network of tiny tubes that carry lymph throughout your body. Like the byways that run around town, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels run through every corner of your body, working to deliver what you need and do other important work to keep you moving strong.
Many different diseases can affect the lymphatic system and disrupt its daily work. If you have been diagnosed with this condition, you may be scared of what it means for your future. Learning more about the lymphatic system and how it works can help you understand what’s going on in your body and how treatment can help. Ask your healthcare provider for additional resources on the lymphatic system and the specific condition you have. The lymphatic system, or lymphoid system, is an organ system that is part of the immune system of vertebrates and complements the circulatory system. It consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs, lymphoid tissue and a large network of lymph.
Lymph is a clear fluid carried by lymphatic vessels for circulation back to the heart. (Latin lymph, lymph, meaning “Lymph”, the god of fresh water).
The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 liters of blood per day through capillary filtration, which removes plasma from the blood. About 17 liters of filtered blood is reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, and the remaining three liters remain in the interstitial fluid. One of the main functions of the lymphatic system is to provide an additional return path to the blood for the extra three liters.
Beyond Detox: Unlocking The Secret Healing Power Of The Lymphatic System
Another main function is immune protection. Lymph is very similar to blood plasma in that it contains waste products and cell debris along with bacteria and proteins. Lymph cells consist mainly of lymphocytes. Associated lymphoid organs consist of lymphoid tissue and are sites of lymphocyte production or lymphocyte activation. These include lymph nodes (where the highest concentration of lymphocytes is found), spleen, thymus, and tonsils. Lymphocytes are initially formed in the bone marrow. Lymphoid organs also have other types of cells for support, such as stromal cells.
Fluid from circulating blood flows into body tissues by capillary action, carrying nutrients to cells. Fluid washes the tissues as interstitial fluid, collecting waste, bacteria, and damaged cells, and drains into lymphatic capillaries and lymphatic vessels as lymph. These vessels carry lymph throughout the body and filter unwanted substances such as bacteria and damaged cells through the many lymph nodes. Lymph travels into much larger lymphatic vessels known as lymphatic vessels. The right lymphatic duct drains the right side of the region, while the much larger left lymphatic duct, called the thoracic duct, drains the left side of the body. The ducts empty into the subclavian veins to return to the circulation. Lymph is moved through the system by muscle contraction.
The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs, lymphoid tissues, and the circulating lymphatic network.
Primary (or primary) lymphoid organs produce lymphocytes from immature progeritor cells. The thymus and bone marrow constitute the main lymphoid organs involved in lymphocyte tissue production and early clonal selection.
Lymphatic System And Immunity
The bone marrow is responsible for the generation of T-cell precursors and the production and maturation of B cells, important cell types of the immune system. B cells from the bone marrow immediately enter the circulatory system and travel to secondary lymphoid organs in search of pathogens. T cells, on the other hand, migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they further develop and mature. Mature T cells join B cells in the search for pathogens. The remaining 95% of T cells initiate the process of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death.
The thymus enlarges in response to postnatal antigen stimulation. Most active in the neonatal and preadolescent period. The thymus is located between the lower neck and upper chest. At puberty, the thymus begins to atrophy and regress, and adipose tissue mainly replaces the thymic stroma. However, residual T-cell lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life, providing a specific immune response. Thymus T-lymphocytes mature and become immune. Loss or deficiency of the thymus results in severe immunodeficiency and subsequent increased susceptibility to infection. In most species, the thymus consists of lobules divided into septa composed of epithelium, often considered an epithelial organ. T cells mature and proliferate from thymocytes and undergo a selection process in the thymic cortex before entering the medulla to interact with epithelial cells.
Studies in bony fish have shown accumulation of T cells in the thymus and lymphoid tissues in salmon, and have shown that T cells are not abundant in non-lymphoid tissues.
The thymus provides an inductive environment for the development of T cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, thymic stromal cells allow the selection of a functional and self-perpetuating T cell repertoire. Therefore, one of the most important roles of the thymus is the induction of ctral tolerance. However, the thymus is not the place to fight infection because the T cells are not yet immune.
Organization Of The Lymphatic System
Secondary (or peripheral) lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, store mature naive lymphocytes and initiate the adaptive immune response.
Activation leads to clonal expansion and affinity maturation. Mature lymphocytes circulate between the blood and secondary lymphoid organs until they become resistant to specific antigen.
The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells.
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