Indoor Air Pollution Effects On Human Health – The unit provides technical assistance to the Member States in developing standard guidelines, tools and provides authoritative advice on health issues related to air pollution and its sources. The unit leads the study and reporting of global trends and changes in health outcomes related to actions taken to address air pollution at national, regional and global levels.
Domestic air pollution is largely caused by the burning of polluting fuels such as wood, animal manure, charcoal, agricultural waste, and kerosene in open fires or inefficient stoves in and around the home. Around 2.4 billion people worldwide rely heavily on polluting fuels for their cooking, heating and lighting needs. Exposure to household air pollution from poor combustion of these fuels causes many health problems such as pneumonia in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, stroke, and cardiovascular disease in adults.
Indoor Air Pollution Effects On Human Health
More than 3 million people die prematurely each year from diseases caused by household air pollution (2022; burden of disease of household air pollution; other HAP data). Of these deaths, 32% are due to ischemic heart disease, 21% to lower respiratory diseases, 23% to stroke, 19% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 6% to lung cancer. In children under 5 years of age, exposure to household air pollution is responsible for nearly half of pneumonia deaths. , tuberculosis, cataract, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, and cervical cancer.
These Are The Most Common Sources Of Indoor Air Pollution
The fine particulate matter and other pollutants in indoor smoke can also cause inflammation in the airways and lungs, which impairs the immune response and reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Exposure to household air pollution can also cause short-term health effects, such as burning eyes, coughing, runny nose and throat irritation. .The burden of carrying heavy loads of fuel, which are often carried on the head or back, can cause muscle strains, spinal cord injuries, fractures, and pregnancy problems, as well as long-term physical stress, chronic pain, and rheumatism.
Domestic use of polluting fuels and technologies are also a safety hazard. Cerosene, which is often sold in refillable soda bottles, is a leading cause of childhood poisoning. children. Stoves and fires are often on the floor, where children can easily touch or fall into them.
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Indoor Air Quality Solutions
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Indoor Air Quality Monitoring 2023: The Complete Guide
NPU-NCP International Joint Research Center on Advanced Engineering of Nanomaterials and Defects, National Center for Physics, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Received: 21 February 2023 / Revised: 18 March 2023 / Accepted: 2 June 2023 / Published: 6 June 2023
This state-of-the-art review is designed to provide a factual analysis of indoor air pollution in Pakistan. In particular, the main sources of indoor air pollution and associated air pollution were analyzed. Major sources of indoor air pollution include home energy sources (biomass, wood, coal, tobacco, and low temperature) producing particulate matter (PM), dust particles, smoke, COx , infectious gases, bioaerosols, airborne microflora, and flame retardants. According to the literature, indoor PM concentrations in rural regions of Pakistan that use indoor biofuels are in the range of 4000–9000 μg/m.
, causing frequent infections in patients. Intake of dust containing polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations at high levels (~8.79–34.39 ng/g) was observed in cities; this can cause serious health effects such as cancer risks and loss of work productivity. In addition, internal microflora and bacteria (~10,000-15,000 cfu m
From Identifying To Acting: How To Guarantee Good Quality Air In Buildings
) in urban/rural areas causing respiratory/cancer risks. In this context, indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring and management strategies are somewhat developed; however, there is still a need to implement them in rural/urban environments within Pakistan. Various challenges have been identified for IAQ monitoring/management. Industry-academic research collaboration and government/agency involvement are urgently needed to support indoor air pollution control/management and intervention strategies.
Indoor air pollution has become a global challenge due to increased health risks and socioeconomic risks . In developing countries such as Pakistan, lack of adequate analysis of indoor air quality (IAQ) management and protection strategies has resulted in health and economic risks. Indoor activities such as cooking, heating, cleaning, smoking, use of building materials, as well as outdoor air infiltration continuously increase the level of indoor air pollution . The choice of household fuel (biomass, wood, coal, charcoal, crop residues, animal manure, etc.) can contribute to >80% of indoor pollution. In recent decades, concentrations of major indoor air pollutants (particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants, dust, smoke, and bioaerosols) have been continuously increasing in Pakistan [3, 4]. As a result, an increase in indoor pollutant concentration has led to several diseases including respiratory, asthmatic, allergic, cardiovascular, carcinogenic, and other health issues [5, 6]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), indoor air pollution has increased the annual disease burden and mortality rate in Pakistan . For example, safe PM
. Similarly, WHO provides safe indoor levels for several other indoor pollutants. As a result, implementation of IAQ management policies, monitoring tools, and sustainable WHO solutions are major challenges for IAQ development in Pakistan [8, 9, 10]. In this context, IAQ sensor systems [11, 12, 13], filtration/adsorption media [14, 15, 16], UV photocatalysts , and advanced methods must be adopted in Pakistan.
In this novel, state-of-the-art, and comprehensive review, the current state of IAQ in Pakistan was analyzed using several incidents of indoor air pollution around major cities and rural areas of Pakistan. Major sources of indoor air pollution, major pollutants, and health effects were studied. As a result, the need for IAQ assessment, control and monitoring technologies was investigated. It was found that the involvement of academic/research institutions, government agencies, and stakeholders for long-term planned studies of indoor air pollution was essential. In this context, it is also essential to link indoor air control/management with appropriate policy interventions (according to WHO standards).
Indoor Air Pollution.
Recent strategies must focus on the elimination of essential indoor pollution and for IAQ control and monitoring in Pakistan. The use of advanced materials in these technologies can offer a promising way to improve IAQ. In this context, various nanomaterials, membranes, nanocomposites, nanohybrids, and polymeric nanocomposites can be designed and used to reduce indoor pollution. The future of IAQ control/monitoring in Pakistan depends on using advanced sensing based on nanomaterials, filtration/adsorption, and photocatalysts to remove indoor pollutants. After that, major pollutants, health effects, and control methods in Pakistan need to be studied. In this context, there are some reports in the previous literature that have studied indoor pollution in Pakistan but not in an updated form that reflects the current state. Among related studies, an analysis by Colbeck et al.  in 2010. However, the article was published more than ten years ago, and there are analyzes of very few research reports, perhaps due to the limited data available at the that time Poor IAQ in Pakistan has been attributed to wood-based fuels and indoor smoking, and few guidelines have been proposed to improve the situation. However, legislation on smoking in public places and the adoption of safe fuels have been proposed. Compared to previous studies, our review provides a recent sketch of the state of IAQ in Pakistan with comprehensive coverage of literature, knowledge, and policy implementation needs to remove indoor air pollution. However, compared to the last decades, there has been little improvement
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