Impact Of Solid Waste On Health And The Environment – In societies with inadequate waste management systems, waste may be deliberately burned to free up space in landfills, to facilitate the purification of non-combustible materials (such as metals) for profit, or for use as a heat source. In uncontrolled dumps and landfills, waste can also spontaneously combust as a result of a combination of factors, including emissions of flammable methane gas from biodegradable waste.
Burning waste is a major source of dangerous carcinogens such as dioxins and furans, and black carbon, a short-lived climate pollutant that contributes to climate change, increased melting in polar regions due to the deposition of soot and black carbon on snow and ice, and many human health problems.
- 1 Impact Of Solid Waste On Health And The Environment
- 2 What Is Commercial Waste And How Does It Affect The Environment
- 3 Municipal Solid Waste Management
Impact Of Solid Waste On Health And The Environment
Open burning of waste is a widespread practice, partly spurred on by a lack of systematic waste collection. Its diffuse nature – occurring in large landfills, small or remote landfills and individual households – makes it a complex problem to solve.
What Is Commercial Waste And How Does It Affect The Environment
Even those who are aware of the consequences may continue to burn waste out of habit or because other disposal options are not immediately available. Still, raising awareness of the significant health consequences of burning waste is key to stopping it, as is capacity building for local waste managers to collect waste and prevent the build-up of landfill gas that ignites spontaneously.
The Waste Initiative supports the adoption of policies and measures that will help national and local governments reduce black carbon emissions from open burning of waste, reduce associated pollution that threatens local communities, and work towards universal collection through cooperation and planning with subnational governments.
The Waste Initiative provides partners with tools and technical resources that will help them reduce the incidence of open waste burning by:3 What is waste? Garbage (also known as trash, refuse, trash, junk) is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is one of the many unwanted substances excreted from living organisms, metabolic waste; such as urea and sweat.
4 Types of waste Solid waste: waste in solid form, household waste, commercial and industrial waste Examples: plastic, bottles, cans, paper, iron scrap and other waste Liquid waste: waste in liquid form Examples: household washing, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources. Biodegradable: can be broken down (paper, wood, fruit and others) Non-biodegradable: can not be broken down (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, Styrofoam containers and others) Hazardous waste: Substances that are unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically and has one of the following properties – flammability, corrosion, reactivity and toxicity. Non-hazardous: Substances that are safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally or economically and have none of the above characteristics. These substances usually create disposal problems.
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Municipal Solid Waste: Solid waste which includes household waste, garbage, construction and packaging materials, trade refuges etc. is handled by any municipality. Biomedical waste: Solid or liquid waste, including containers, products, generated during diagnosis, treatment and research activities in medical sciences. Industrial waste: Liquid and solid waste generated by manufacturing and processing units in various industries such as chemicals, petroleum, coal, metal gas, sanitation and paper etc. Agricultural waste: Waste generated from agricultural activities. These substances are mostly biodegradable. Fishing waste: Waste generated due to fishing activities. E-waste: Electronic waste generated from all modern businesses. They can be described as discarded electrical or electronic devices. Some electronic scrap components such as CRTs, wires, circuits, mobile, computers, etc.
Garbage Garbage Bulky garbage (TV, refrigerator items, broken furniture, etc.) Garbage Garbage non-degradable (glass, rubber, metals, plastic, non-metal sets) Vegetables, meat, food waste and other easily degradable organic waste slowly degradable (paper), wood products, textiles etc.)
7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste One square kilometer of additional landfill space every year Rs 1600 crore for the treatment and disposal of this waste. In addition to this, industries emit about 150 million tons of high-volume low-hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low-lying land areas. Growth of solid waste in India Waste is growing by leaps and bounds In , Mumbai’s population increased from 8.2 million to 12.3 million In the same period, municipal solid waste has grown from 3200 tonnes to 5355 tonnes, an increase of 67% City like Bangalore produces 2000 tons of waste per year. Garbage collection is very low for all Indian cities.
Primarily by the city municipality – No grading of waste products, e.g. biodegradable, glass, polybags, scraps of paper etc. -Dumping this waste to the outskirts of the city Local raddiwala / kabadiwala -Collection of small iron pieces with magnets -Collection of glass bottles -Collection of paper for recycling. How has solid waste affected us in recent years? In Mumbai (2005) sewage line clogged due to big no. of plastic bags. Blast in Bhusan Steel plant in Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated food, animals dying on streets and agricultural land due to consumption of plastic bags, blocking the movement of food in their stomach
Impact Of Solid Waste On Human Health And The Environment A Critical Legal Analysis
Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health, with children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. Improperly operated incinerators cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects that spread disease. Direct handling of solid waste results in chronic diseases in the sanitation workers.
Waste is dumped directly into disused quarries, cavities in the mining operation or in borrow pits. Disposed waste is compacted and covered with soil. Gases generated by the decomposing waste materials are often burned to generate electricity. It is generally used for household waste.
16 ADVANTAGES Landfill is a cheap waste option for the municipal council. Jobs will be created for the local population. Lots of different types of waste can be disposed of in landfill compared to other waste disposal methods. The gases emitted from the landfill could be collected and used to produce electricity. DISADVANTAGES The site will look unsightly while being used as a landfill. Hazardous gases are released from landfills, causing local air pollution and contributing to global warming. Local streams can be contaminated by toxins seeping through the soil from the landfill. Once the site has been filled, it may not be suitable for redevelopment as it may be too contaminated.
18 2. INCINERATION Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves burning solid waste at 1000C. waste materials are converted into ash, flue gas and heat. The ash is mostly formed from the inorganic components of the waste and gases due to organic waste. the heat generated by combustion is used to generate electrical current.
Harmful Effects Of E Waste Dumping
A minimum of land is required compared to other disposal methods. The weight of the waste is reduced to 25% of the initial value. No risk of contaminating local streams and groundwater as in landfills. Incineration plants can be placed close to residential areas. Gases are used to generate electricity. DISADVANTAGES Expensive Requires skilled labour. The chemicals that would be released into the air can be strong pollutants and can destroy the ozone layer (major disadvantage). high energy demand.
20 COMPACTING: The waste is compacted or compacted. It also breaks up large or fragile waste items. This process is conspicuous in the feed in the back of many garbage trucks. Deposit debris at the bottom of the slope for best compaction and control of blowing debris.
21 PYROLYSIS:- Pyrolysis is defined as the thermal decomposition of waste in the absence of air to produce char, pyrolysis oil and syngas, e.g. the transformation of wood into charcoal is also defined as the destructive distillation of waste in the absence of oxygen. External heat source is used in this process.
23 The 3 R REDUCE You can help by RECYCLING. 1/3 of all waste is packaging. Buy things that are in packages that can be reused or are made from recycled materials. When buying something small, say no to a bag. RECYCLING Many things can be recycled before you throw them away. Use coffee cans and cottage cheese containers for storage Use the back of paper or the back of used envelopes to write notes Put leftovers in resale containers instead of using wraps and foil Use old clothes as rags for cleaning instead of paper towels Have a garage sale or donate clothes, books or toys that you no longer use RECYCLE Every year we use: 25 billion plastic containers 30 billion bottles and jars 65 billion aluminum cans 100 billion pounds of paper
Pdf] Impact Of Solid Waste On Human Health And Environment In India
24 CONCLUSION: It has been found that with the increase in global population and the increasing demand for food and other essentials, there has been an increase in the amount of waste generated daily by each household. Waste that is not handled properly, especially excrement and other liquid and solid waste from households and communities, is a serious health hazard and leads to the spread of infectious diseases.
25 REFERENCE: Solid Waste Management Handbook (2000), Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization (CPHEEO), Government of India. Solid Waste Management in Greater Bombay, (September 2004) Gupta, Sanjay K (April 2004), “Waste Management”, India Together Anon, State of Environment-India 2001. Environmental Protection Agency
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