How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth – The data is there and 99% of scientists agree. The climate is changing and causing increasingly negative impacts on the environment, weather, human health and agriculture.

Scientists also agree that climate change is caused by increased concentrations of a handful of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, and that human activity is at the root of the problem.

How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth

How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth

In the simplest terms, here’s how greenhouse gases cause global warming. The sun warms the Earth every day. For the average air temperature to remain roughly constant over time, an equal amount of heat must be returned from the atmosphere to space in the form of infrared (heat) waves radiating from the Earth’s surface (red arrows).

How Has Global Warming Affected The World So Far?

Below). Due to the special chemical structure of GHGs and the physical properties of infrared waves, a collision with an GHG molecule causes the heat wave to bounce in a random direction rather than continuing on a direct path into space. Increasing the concentration of GHG molecules in the atmosphere means that escaping heat waves have more collisions and more bounce in the atmosphere before escaping into space. This delay in heat loss from the ground causes an increase in atmospheric temperature.

It is essentially impossible to detect climate change through personal experience. In our daily life, we encounter weather, not climate. Weather is highly localized and changes over short periods of days or weeks, while climate is regional and changes gradually over decades. The difference between climate and weather is often described as “climate is what you expect, weather is what you get” or “climate determines the clothes you keep in your wardrobe, weather determines what you wear on a given day”. We cannot detect small changes in climate over decades because they are attenuated by shorter-term weather variability.

To see the evidence for climate change clearly, we need to turn to long-term records. Measurements of global air and ocean temperatures over many years are direct evidence of a long-term warming trend in global temperatures. This trend can be clearly seen in the record of average global temperature from 1850 to 2021 (Figure 2). The fact that temperatures can vary dramatically from year to year is not clearly inconsistent with a long-term warming trend. While it’s tempting to think that a cooler-than-average summer, or even a very cold winter, could mean global warming slows or stops, such short-term changes in local weather are essentially meaningless noise around our long-term trend. See Figure 2.

Figure 2. Long-term record of global mean temperature 1850-2021. Red dots are annual averages, vertical bars represent variability around this average. The solid red line marks the pre-industrial average temperature, and the temperature anomaly is the difference between that annual average and the pre-industrial baseline. Source:

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The solid red line in Figure 2 shows that the global average temperature was relatively stable from 1850 to 1900. This value is taken as a measure of the global average temperature in the pre-industrial era. An increase in global temperatures began to appear in the 1920s, but the effects of human-induced climate change have become particularly acute since the 1970s.

Not only has every decade since 1970 been warmer than the previous one, but the last 7 years (2015-2021) have been the warmest in all of human history, at 1.2 ° – 1.4 °C warmer than the pre-industrial baseline. .

The animation below is a visualization of long-term global temperature data that also shows the geographic variation in temperature from year to year. During the first 50 years, some places are warmer than average and some are colder. But starting around 1970, the directional warming effects of human-caused climate change swamped the year-to-year and place-to-place weather that had dominated the landscape before that time. The warming trend is clear.

How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth

Overall, long-term data show that we are fast approaching a 1.5°C increase in global average temperature, a threshold we must not exceed if we hope to avoid serious environmental and economic damage from climate change.

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Why do we call it the greenhouse effect? Enter the greenhouse on a hot summer day and it will be warm! This is because glass does not transmit much infrared waves, which slows down heat loss from the greenhouse. Because the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere produces the same effect (albeit by a different mechanism), this is known as the greenhouse effect.

The greenhouse effect is nothing new. There have always been low levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which slow the loss of heat from the Earth. In fact, without the greenhouse effect, Earth would have cooled rapidly enough to support life after dark. But now, extremely high concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere have made the greenhouse effect a dangerous problem.

How do we know that the current level of warming is not part of a natural cycle? The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has fluctuated between about 180 and 300 ppm for at least the last 800,000 years.

. We know this from measurements of CO₂ concentrations in ice cores obtained from thick deposits of Antarctic ice. These ice sheets are formed from ancient snow that fell in Antarctica and turned into ice over hundreds of thousands of years. Scientists can date each part of the ice core in the same way that fossils are dated, and tiny amounts of ancient air trapped in the ice can be extracted. The CO₂ concentration in the exhaled air is a measure of atmospheric CO₂ at the time the ice formed. These measurements form the basis of an 800,000-year history of CO₂ concentrations in Antarctic air.

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. There are also ways to determine the temperature when a certain part of the ice core formed so that scientists can relate atmospheric CO₂ to temperatures over 800,000 years ago. This is a time on Earth that far surpasses human history.

Figure 3.  Records of atmospheric CO₂ concentration (blue line) and air temperature (black line) over the past 800,000 years from ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice cores. Regular cycles are caused by regular changes in the Earth’s tilt. They cause ice ages but are not involved in climate change. Note that the maximum CO₂ concentration during this long period is 300ppm. In contrast, current levels are now around 420 ppm. This is so far from the range of previous periods that it cannot be caused by the same process, according to the evidence presented below in Figures 4 and 5. Source: NOAA

How do we know people are responsible? Two lines of evidence point to human activity as the primary cause of climate change.

How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth

A.  Natural factors alone cannot explain the observed increase in temperature. If we tabulate temperature changes since 1900 due only to natural causes such as volcanoes and solar activity, the temperature trend

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. Only by including temperature changes caused by human emissions of CO₂ into the atmosphere are results consistent with observed data.

Figure 4. When comprehensive climate models are applied using historical data, we can ask what factors are driving the changes we are already seeing. This is called hindcasting. When the models are run using all the natural and human factors that can cause climate change, we see a good fit to the observed conditions (blue trajectory). This shows that the models are capturing the main drivers of climate change. It also provides confidence that the model’s predictions about the future will be meaningful. In contrast, when climate models include only natural climate drivers (solar activity, volcanoes, and changes in the Earth’s orbit), the global temperature rise (green trajectory) observed in long-term data (black line) is not captured.

If you want to explore the effects of individual natural or human factors on global temperature, check out the excellent interactive version.

B. Since the Industrial Revolution, the total amount of CO₂ emitted by fossil fuels has closely matched the observed increase in atmospheric CO₂.

Comparative Picture Between Drought, Global Warming Effect And Refreshing Area. The Concept Of Changing Brushes. Love The World. Save The Environment. 13761226 Stock Photo At Vecteezy

(Black line in Figure 5). This close relationship between the carbon released by burning fossil fuels and the measured increases in atmospheric CO₂ is the fingerprint of human climate change.

Figure 5. Records of cumulative carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal) closely match observed increases in atmospheric CO₂. This is clear evidence of human influence on climate change. Source: Center for Carbon Dioxide Data Analysis, DOE

Why do we call this climate change instead of global warming? Warm air in the atmosphere has caused complex changes on Earth that reflect the effects of increased atmospheric concentrations of IRs.

How Does Global Warming Effect The Earth

Most of the extra heat produced by the greenhouse effect does not remain in the atmosphere. Instead, more than 93% is absorbed by the world’s oceans and has multiple effects:

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What will the future look like? We are now at CODE Red. In August 2021, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its updated report on the state of the global climate. Considering that this document required the consent of all participating countries, the conclusions can be considered conservative. Despite this basic conservatism,

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