Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf – Global warming refers to the increase in average global temperature since the Industrial Revolution. The average global temperature has increased by about one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880. Global warming is an ongoing process; scientists expect the average global temperature to rise another 0.3 to 0.7 degrees Celsius (0.54 to 1.26 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2035.

Certain gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, trap the sun’s heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. These greenhouse gases (GHGs) exist naturally in the atmosphere and help keep the Earth’s surface warm enough to support life. Without greenhouse gases, Earth’s average temperature would be zero degrees Fahrenheit instead of today’s approximately 58.3 degrees Fahrenheit.

Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf

Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf

Human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels (ie, coal, natural gas, and oil) to power vehicles, factories, and homes, release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Other activities, including deforestation (cutting down trees) and livestock farming, also result in greenhouse gas emissions.

Global Warming Definition, Causes, Effects, Impacts, Solutions

Higher concentrations of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap more heat on Earth, causing anthropogenic (ie human-caused) global warming. Climatologists agree that human activity is the main driver of the global warming we are experiencing.

The terms climate change and global warming are often used interchangeably, but climate change generally refers to ongoing changes in average weather (such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, atmospheric pressure, ocean temperature, etc.), while global warming refers narrowly to an increase in the Earth’s average global temperature .

Climate change can refer to the natural fluctuations in Earth’s average temperature over geologic time, between cold periods (ice ages known as ice ages) and warm periods (interglacial periods).

However, the climate change we are currently experiencing is caused by human activity (see question 2). Scientists have concluded that the Earth’s surface must have cooled somewhat over the past 50 years based on natural factors such as the intensity of solar radiation and volcanic activity; instead, increased fossil fuel burning has led to global warming—and at a much faster rate than at any time in the past 800,000 years.

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An increase in average global temperature due to human activities has many impacts on the planet, including more intense and frequent droughts and storms, melting glaciers and ice sheets, rising sea levels, warming oceans, and ocean acidification (see question 8). People around the world are already feeling the effects of climate change on the environment. Changeable weather conditions can ruin crops and cause severe water shortages. Rising sea levels threaten low-lying islands and coastal cities. Tropical and insect-borne diseases spread as their hosts move into new habitats that were previously too cold for them to survive.

Climate change poses a significant threat to the health and well-being of human societies, particularly in communities that lack resources and are therefore ill-equipped to deal with the effects of a warmer climate.

5. What does global warming have to do with severe weather events such as storms, heat waves, droughts, and hurricanes?

Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf

Rising global temperatures increase the severity and likelihood of storms, floods, wildfires, droughts and heat waves. In a warmer climate, the atmosphere can accumulate, retain, and release more water, leading to a change in precipitation patterns. Increased rainfall can help support agriculture, but rainfall is increasingly falling in the form of more intense one-day storms that damage property, infrastructure and lead to loss of life in affected areas. Over the past few decades, the United States has experienced more heat waves and fewer cold waves. Since the 1960s, the length of the heat season has increased by more than 40 days in many cities. Major U.S. cities today average more than six heat waves per year, compared to an average of two heat waves per year in the 1960s. Global warming also causes sea surface temperatures to rise, as most of the heat trapped by Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean. The high temperature of the sea surface facilitates the formation of hurricanes. Due to human-induced global warming, rainfall from hurricanes is expected to increase, hurricane intensity will increase, and the proportion of storms reaching Category 4 or 5 will increase.

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It is difficult for researchers to attribute a specific weather event to global warming. However, climate scientists are convinced that higher average global temperatures make extreme weather more likely and more severe. The United States is seeing a clear increase in the number of destructive weather and climate disasters combined with increased coastal and river floodplain development (ie, more people and infrastructure in these areas being impacted). The table below from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) shows the number and impacts of billion-dollar disasters by decade from 1980 to 2019.

6. If global warming is real, why is this winter so cold and snowy? (Difference between climate and weather.)

The key to understanding the answer to this question is the difference between weather and climate. Weather is what is happening outside today, and climate is the typical weather of the area. It may rain in Los Angeles today, but the climate in the city is usually dry. As global average temperatures rise, winters are likely to be shorter and less snowy. However, there are still cold days and colder-than-average years due to changes in atmospheric circulation associated with weather patterns.

In order for snow to form, there must be humidity and freezing air temperature. Both of these conditions are still likely in winter, especially in regions where temperatures are well below freezing (so even if you raise the average temperature in that location, many winter days will still be below freezing). Therefore, global warming does not interfere with snowy winters. In fact, global warming may lead to more intense winter storms in some regions. For example, because rising sea surface temperatures contribute to stronger storms, places like the northeastern United States are likely to experience stronger winter storms (although they may be more rare). Scientists expect winters to become shorter on average as global temperatures continue to rise, likely leading to fewer snow days.

Pesticides & The Climate Crisis

Cumulative changes in the level of the World Ocean since 1880. The blue line shows the sea level measured by tide gauges (1880-2013); the orange line shows sea level as measured by satellites (1993-2018).

Source: US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). Data sources: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Global warming contributes to sea level rise in two main ways. First, higher temperatures cause rapid melting of glaciers and land ice sheets, which moves water from land into the ocean. Areas of significant ice melt include Greenland, Antarctica, and mountain glaciers around the world.

Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf

Second, thermal expansion, the process by which warmer water takes up more space, causes the ocean to expand in volume, leading to sea level rise.

What Is Global Warming? Definitions, Causes, And Effects

Other factors affect sea level, and the combination of all these factors results in different rates of sea level rise across the planet. Local factors that can cause sea levels to rise faster in certain areas include ocean currents and lowering of the land surface (known as subsidence).

Since 1880, the average global sea level has risen between eight and nine inches. Under the low-emissions scenario, models project that sea-level rise will increase to about one foot above 2000 levels by the end of the century. Under the high-emissions scenario, sea levels could rise more than eight feet above 2000 levels by 2100. Either way, it will increase the risk of coastal flooding and endanger millions of people living in low-lying coastal areas such as New York, Los Angeles, and Miami.

The ocean is a central component of the carbon cycle. Carbon is constantly being cycled between the ocean, land and atmosphere (this is called carbon flux). Seawater absorbs 25 to 30 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. As humans release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (see question 2), the ocean absorbs more carbon dioxide. This changes the chemical composition of the ocean and is called ocean acidification. Ocean pH has dropped by 0.1 pH units, which is about a 30 percent increase in acidity. This change is enough to affect many marine organisms. For example, acidification prevents the formation of the mollusk shell and can even cause it to dissolve.

Animal husbandry contributes to climate change both directly, through digestion processes, and indirectly, through vegetation that is cleared to make way for livestock.

Pdf) Global Warming: Causes, Effects And Solutions

Agriculture as a whole accounts for 10 percent of US greenhouse gas emissions. Global agricultural emissions result from the digestive process of ruminants (such as cows, sheep, and goats), manure left on pastures, synthetic fertilizers, rice cultivation, burning for land clearing, and tillage and crop residues.

Livestock, especially cattle, produce methane through digestion. Livestock manure also emits methane. Together, livestock and manure emissions account for 38 percent of total US methane emissions. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that retains heat 25 times more strongly than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

Forests were often cut down or burned to gain land

Climate Change Causes Effects And Solutions Pdf

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