Alpha Beta And Delta Cells Of Pancreas – IStock Pancreatic Endocrine System Anatomy Alpha Beta and Delta Cells Secrete Glucagon, Insulin and Somatostatin Vector Illustration – Download Image Now

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Alpha Beta And Delta Cells Of Pancreas

Alpha Beta And Delta Cells Of Pancreas

Pancreatic endocrine system anatomy, alpha, beta and delta cells secrete glucagon, insulin and somatostatin vector illustration.

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© 2024 LP. iStock designs are trademarks of LP. Browse millions of high-quality stock photos, illustrations and videos. The pancreas is an elongated retroperitoneal organ located mostly behind the lower half of the stomach (Figure(PageIndex)). It borders the retroperitoneal part of the duodenum on the right side and the spleen on the left side. The acinar cells of the pancreas are arranged in many short dead-end areas that are directly connected to the pancreatic duct, which runs laterally through the core of the pancreas to the duodenum immediately to its right. Although it is primarily an exocrine gland whose acinar cells secrete a variety of digestive enzymes, including pancreatic juice, which function outside the epithelial lining of the small intestine, the pancreas also has endocrine functions. Scattered around cul-de-sacs of acinar cells throughout the pancreas are approximately one million islets (clusters of cells formerly known as islets of Langerhans) that secrete hormones such as glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) .

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Figure(PageIndex): Pancreas. (a) The higher head of the pancreas is attached to the left surface of the duodenum of the small intestine, slightly inferior to the stomach. The thinner tail of the pancreas extends across the midline to the spleen. The pancreas is composed of many functional lobules. There are two functional areas within the pancreatic lobule: acinar cells have an exocrine function and secrete digestive enzymes into the pancreatic duct in the center of the organ. After the pancreatic duct merges with the common bile duct, pancreatic juice immediately flows to the duodenum. The islets are not connected to the pancreatic duct and have endocrine functions; the alpha and beta cells of the islets secrete pancreatic hormones into the blood. (b) Lightly stained islets are shown in the center of this photomicrograph, surrounded by darker stained acinar cells. LMX200. (Image credit: “Exocrine and Endocrine Pancreas” by Julie Jenks is licensed under CC BY 4.0/derivatives of the original work in (a) and (b))

Each islet contains four types of cells, and their secretions enter the bloodstream and reach target cells:

Glucose is necessary for cellular respiration and is the preferred fuel for all body cells. The body obtains glucose from the breakdown of carbohydrate-containing foods and drinks we consume. Glucose that is not immediately absorbed by cells for fuel can be stored as glycogen by the liver and muscles, or converted into triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue. Hormones regulate the storage and utilization of glucose as needed. Receptors located in the pancreas sense blood sugar levels, and pancreatic cells then secrete glucagon, or insulin, to maintain normal levels.

Alpha Beta And Delta Cells Of Pancreas

Receptors in the pancreas sense drops in blood sugar levels, such as during fasting or during prolonged labor or exercise (Figure(PageIndex)). In response, the alpha cells of the pancreas secrete the hormone glucagon, which has several effects:

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Collectively, these behaviors increase blood sugar levels. Glucagon activity is regulated through a negative feedback mechanism; rising blood glucose levels further inhibit glucagon production and secretion.

The main function of insulin is to facilitate the uptake of glucose by the body’s cells. Red blood cells and cells lining the brain, liver, kidneys, and small intestine do not have insulin receptors on their cell membranes and do not require insulin to take up glucose. Although all other body cells require insulin if they are to obtain glucose from the blood, skeletal muscle cells and fat cells are the primary targets of insulin.

The presence of food in the intestine causes the pancreatic beta cells to produce and secrete insulin. Once nutrient absorption occurs, the resulting surge in blood sugar levels further stimulates insulin secretion.

Watch this video describing the location and endocrine function of the pancreas. What goes wrong with insulin function in people with type 2 diabetes?

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Insulin also lowers blood sugar levels by stimulating glycolysis (the metabolism of glucose to produce ATP). Additionally, it stimulates the liver to convert excess glucose into glycogen for storage and inhibits enzymes involved in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis since the body does not need to release more glucose. Finally, insulin promotes triglyceride and protein synthesis. Insulin secretion is regulated through a negative feedback mechanism. As blood sugar levels decrease, further release of insulin is inhibited. Pancreatic hormones are summarized in Table (PageIndex).

Dysfunctions in the production and secretion of insulin and in the responsiveness of target cells to insulin may lead to a disease called diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is an increasingly common disease, with more than 18 million adults and more than 200,000 children diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. It is estimated that up to 7 million adults have the disease but have not yet been diagnosed. Additionally, an estimated 79 million people in the United States have prediabetes, a condition in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

There are two main forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that affects the beta cells of the pancreas. Certain genes are thought to increase susceptibility. The beta cells of people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin; therefore, synthetic insulin must be administered by injection or infusion. This form of diabetes accounts for less than five percent of all diabetes cases.

Alpha Beta And Delta Cells Of Pancreas

Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 95% of all cases. It is acquired, and lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of exercise, and prediabetes can greatly increase a person’s risk of developing diabetes. About 80 to 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. In type 2 diabetes, cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. In response, the pancreas increases insulin secretion, but over time the beta cells become depleted. In many cases, type 2 diabetes can be reversed with moderate weight loss, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. However, if blood sugar levels cannot be controlled, people with diabetes will eventually need insulin.

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Two early signs of diabetes are excessive urination and excessive thirst. They demonstrated how out-of-control glucose levels in the blood affect kidney function. The kidneys are responsible for filtering glucose from the blood. High blood sugar can bring water into the urine, causing the patient to pass abnormally large amounts of sweet urine. Using the water in the body to dilute the urine dehydrates the body, so the person becomes unusually and constantly thirsty. A person may also experience constant hunger because the body’s cells are unable to access glucose in the blood.

Over time, persistently high concentrations of glucose in the blood can damage tissues throughout the body, especially blood vessels and nerves. Inflammation and damage to the inner walls of arteries can lead to atherosclerosis and increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Damage to the microscopic blood vessels in the kidneys can impair kidney function and may lead to kidney failure. Damage to blood vessels in the eye can lead to blindness. Damage to blood vessels can also reduce circulation to the extremities, while damage to nerves can lead to a loss of sensation called neuropathy, especially in the hands and feet. Together, these changes increase the risk of injury, infection, and tissue death (necrosis), leading to higher rates of amputation of toes, feet, and lower legs in people with diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes can also lead to a dangerous metabolic acidosis called ketoacidosis. Without glucose, cells increasingly rely on fat stores for fuel. However, in the absence of glucose

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